According to statistical medical data, more than a quarter of the population of our planet are infected with helminths. Scientists know more than 300 species of worms that can successfully parasitize in the human body. They differ:
- by the method of entering into the body of the larva,
- in the location,
- in size,
- in the stages of development and reproduction rate.
Even the life cycle of worms varies. Conditionally all worms are divided into:
- tape( flat),
The most common roundworms are ascarids, pinworms and trichinella. Among the tapeworms common bovine and porcine tapeworm, hepatic fluke. These worms are well studied by specialists. Parasitologists know what the worms of each group look like, how to deal with them. How do worms look like in a certain group of people, you can look at pictures in professional directories or the Internet, where their photos and videos are presented.
What do human worms look like?
As a matter of fact, helminths are worms, only the place of their dwelling is not soil or water bodies, but the human body into which they come from outside in the form of larvae-eggs. Being in the gastrointestinal tract, the larva begins to develop and grow, it can migrate to various organs and systems, choosing for itself the most favorable habitat for development and further reproduction. If the eggs of worms can be seen with the naked eye it is almost impossible, then the developing larva or adult can be found in feces( usually pinworms).Some parasites, after completion of vital activity can go out through the mouth( ascarids), then they can be seen in the vomit. Since the worms look like worms, in this case it is difficult to notice them.
Some parasites that choose blood vessels, lungs, joints as their habitat remain "hidden" from the naked human eye, therefore it is impossible to see them or their larvae. To determine the presence of parasites in this case allow diagnostic and laboratory measures, for example, MRI of the joint, ultrasound of the liver or fluorography. Experts know how the worms look like in humans, so they can see how they look, on an X-ray photo or after such studies. Videos of intestinal worms can be obtained with sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy - rectal examinations using a special probe on which a video camera is installed.
Sometimes you see worms or their larvae and find out how they look just under a microscope. For example, by examining an anus scraping or joint fluid obtained by puncture. But even in this case, specialists easily recognize the type of worms, as their photo is in any educational medical manual.
At home, you can see the worms by examining feces. If you know how human worms look, you can easily see with the naked eye pinworms in their presence, and ascaris, because of its large size, is unlikely to go unnoticed. As for tapeworms, they can live in the body for decades. However, they periodically "drop" their part, which comes out with feces fragments. These segments look like white or pink stripes, can be seen in feces with the naked eye.
What do the round worms look like in the photo?
Round helminths were named nematodes. This is the most common class of parasites. The name of these worms is due to the circular section of the transverse section of the body, which has an elongated shape with sharpening at both ends. The photo shows how the ascaris and pinworm look - the most common worms of this class.
Ascaris can grow up to 40 centimeters in length. The females of these worms are much longer than males. As a rule, the area of the ascarids is a small intestine. The main harm to the body is caused by toxins released by ascarids in the process of vital activity.
Pinworm grows about one centimeter in length and lives in the thick and thin parts of the intestine. One of the features of this species of helminths is the place of deposition of eggs. Females do this in the area of the anus, than in this place cause itching. Often, thanks to this symptom, the presence of pinworms in the body is revealed. Quite often they are detected in children.
How do human ribbon worms look?
In the terminology of medicine, worms-flukes are called trematodes( pictured).This kind of helminths has a flat body shape( looks like a flattened tongue or an elongated leaf).In length, they can reach almost 1.5 meters. As a rule, a person becomes infected with these parasites with the use of raw or undercooked fish, as well as when eating undercooked crawfish. Places of their parasitism in the body are very different - it can be the walls of the excretory ducts, the Eustachian tube or the conjunctival sac. Depending on the variety, the flukes are fixed by two or more suckers. As food, these parasites use blood, mucus or intestinal contents.
The name "trematodes" to these worms does not quite match, because they do not suck anything out of the body, although it looks like this. The harm that they carry to the human body is very significant.
What does the fluke-flukes look like in humans?
Like the flukes discussed above, the banded helminths( pictured) belong to the group of flatworms. But, at the same time, they are divided into two subspecies - lentets and chains. Unlike round parasites, their larvae develop in an intermediate carrier host( animals and fish).Having reached the sexually mature state, ribbon worms settle in the vertebrate in the intestine.
Characteristic for the body of such worms is their division into segments. The main part is the head of the parasite, which is attached to the intestinal wall. All the body gradually grows from it, the surface of which these helminths feed on. The parasite itself can not be influenced by the gastric( pancreatic) juices of a person because of the special substance( antikinase) that it emits, which neutralizes its action.
For successful treatment it is very important to determine in the diagnosis which parasite has settled in the body: tapeworm or wide ribbon. The clusters of the latter group have a characteristic head with two suckers in the form of pits or grooves. Since eggs are deposited in the environment during digestion( digestible food), they can be easily detected during feces analysis.
Chains have a characteristic division of the body into segments. The length of an adult helminth of this species can reach several meters. In the photo you can see what a tartar looks like, about 20 meters long. The tartar is fixed on the wall of the intestine by means of 4 suckers located on its head. Further, with the growth, segments are formed from the cervix. In human waste( feces), eggs are difficult to identify. Therefore, a comprehensive study, including fluoroscopy, is used.