Localized skin itching: causes and treatment, remedies for it

The sensation of itching is one of the types of skin analyzers, similar to such forms of skin sensations as touch, burning, tingling, pain, in which there is a physiological reflex of combing the skin. This article will tell you in detail about the types, causes and treatment of folk remedies of localized itching of the skin, providing the text with useful photos.

What is localized skin itch

Along with pain, itching performs an extremely important function of protection, being a sign for the immediate elimination of substances that damage the skin. Itching localized, in contrast to generalized( spread), develops on a limited area of ​​the skin.

  • The state of itching is unpleasant, irritating, like a painful one. It is provoked by mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical stimulation of nerve fibers that go to the border between the epidermis and the dermis.
  • Excitation of nerve endings occurs either directly or indirectly - when releasing mediators such as histamine, adrenaline, serotonin, kallikrein, neuropeptides, opioids, cytokines, eicosanoids, and also in the presence of helminthic, tick-borne, tumor and other toxins.
  • If the pain causes a natural reaction of "removing" from the source, the itching acts on the person as an irritating skin "object" that needs to be eliminated. It provokes the reflex of "treating" the itching area in the form of carding, rubbing, tweaking, which leads to quick, but brief satisfaction.

This is due to the fact that in the process of combing the nerve endings receive stronger impulses, which suppress weak signals from itching. Intensive painful itching, for example, with neurodermatitis, patients often relieve, causing severe damage to the skin, tearing it, which leads to the replacement of severe itching with a feeling of severe pain.

Its classification

Classification of itching in practical medicine is based on the types of mechanism of its occurrence. The following forms of pruritus are distinguished:

  • pruritogenic , arising either in tick-borne lesions, bites, skin pathologies, such as atopic dermatitis, hives, psoriasis;
  • systemic or neurogenic , developing as one of the signs of internal diseases( renal, hepatic, cardiovascular pathologies, endocrine disorders, neoplasms);
  • neurological( neuropathic) , manifested against the background of injuries of nerve trunks, compressive compression, brain tumors, abscesses, thrombosis, herpetic neuralgia;
  • is a psychogenic , observed in disorders of the psyche with no signs of dermatological pathology, a depressive condition that is associated with an increased blood content of the hormone corticotropin;
  • multifactorial( with a combination of two or more reasons).

How to identify a symptom in yourself

The patient often does not pay attention to short-term seizures of moderate itching or to permanent but not severe itching. Intense itching is impossible not to notice, especially when it is accompanied by the following external manifestations:

  • excoriation( scratching) in the form of scratches, abrasions, small and large spots;
  • appearance of blood crusts on drying skin lesions;
  • the emergence of the syndrome of "polished nails", which is explained by the constant scratching of the skin, in which the nail plates are grinded and polished and become very smooth and shiny;
  • irritability, fatigue caused by a sleep disorder, nervous system exhaustion.

The video below will tell you about the causes of localized skin itch:

Diseases and disorders

Local itching affecting individual parts of the body can be the usual physiological state after an insect bite or a sign of regeneration of damaged skin, but is often one of the manifestations of a dermatological or systemicaffecting the entire body) of the pathology, requiring immediate diagnosis with the detection of the cause.

The most common causes of localized skin itching:

  • dry skin;
  • skin infection( folliculitis, impetigo);
  • contact, allergic, atopic dermatitis, as a reaction to certain drugs, chemicals, insect bites;
  • dermatoses - eczema, psoriasis, dermatophytosis, red flat lichen;herpetiform dermatitis, pruritus, pediculosis, scabies, xeroderma;
  • chicken pox, measles( itching against the background of skin rashes);
  • liver disease, accompanied by yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes, sclera;
  • chronic kidney failure;
  • endocrine pathologies( diabetes, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism);
  • oncological pathology.

With many diseases of internal organs, malignant tumors, vascular pathologies, localized pruritus manifests itself in certain areas.

Diseases and their corresponding localization of pruritus( excluding anogenital area):

Disease / kind of pruritus Localization other than anogenital area Features, other lesions
Cholestatic( hepatic) itching with biliary cirrhosis( 100%), hepatitis, cholecystitis in chronic form, sclerosing cholangitis, giardiasis, jaundice( 25%), pancreatic tumors Extremities, hips, abdomen, palms, feet, skin between toes. Whole body, anus, genital area. Intensive, often - permanent.
Uremic in chronic renal failure, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis in chronic form Skin of neck, shoulder girdle, limbs, genitals, nasal mucosa. The whole body is often itchy. Amplification immediately after dialysis, at night, in the summer
Diabetes mellitus( diabetic) Auditory aisles, eyelids, skin around the eyes All skin, anus area
Menopause period( climacteric) Armpits, chest skin, tongue, palate Genital area. More often - attacks
Oncology( paraneoplastic spontaneous itching, more often - moderate, increasing at night), including the following diseases:
Polycythemia( erythremia) Extremities, head, neck. Stitching, burning. Aquatic( in contact with water).Can scratch the whole body
Hodgkin's disease Area of ​​lymph nodes, scalp Intensive
Brain cancer Outer and inner region of the nose
Prostate cancer Scrotal, perineum
Carcinoma, adenocarcinoma Limbs, chest, upper back, foldshands Accompanied by burning
Tumors with metastases in bone tissue or skin Areas of lesions with cancer
Neuropathies, disorders of the psyche, including:
Form of peripheral neurope(paresthetic nostalgia or so-called persistent itching) Medial zone of the shoulder blades Involving 2 to 6 thoracic nerves
Multiple sclerosis Skin segment corresponding to the area of ​​spinal cord lesions Attack
Postherpetic neuralgia Area of ​​lesions often accompanied by pain
Thrombosiscerebral vessels, focal lesions Side of the body opposite to brain damage
Allergic manifestations, asthma, obstructive diseases lsoft front in the neck, chest, back whole body
Varicose veins, varicose eczema, thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs skin along the affected vessels

In addition, it is possible to identify limited areas of itching localization in certain pathologies:

Zone affected by itching Possible pathologies
Ear shells, external auditory canals Eczema, seborrheic, atopic dermatitis, diabetes, psoriasis
Eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctiva Allergicdermatitis for cosmetics, demodekoz( tick-borne disease), blepharitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis, barley, corneal ulcers, dry eye syndrome
Nose, skin and mucosa Pollinosis, intestinal helminthiasis, brain cancer
Fingers, wrists Eczema, scabies, contact dermatitis
Mucous mouth, tongue Iron deficiency, folic acid, vitamin B, allergy, candidiasis, stomatitis, herpetic tonsillitis, pemphigus, neuropathy
Facial skin Rosacea, demodectic, psoriasis, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, allergy cold, food, medicament, in the sun, cosmetics
Buttocks Scabies, herpes, intestinal dysbiosis, stomach diseases, allergy to synthetic tissues, detergent

How to deal with such a sign

The presence of itching, affecting isolated areas of the skin, is often a sign of banal allergies. But, if all possible factors leading to such a reaction( medicine, food, chemicals, including cosmetics, temperature factor) are eliminated, and the itching continues, this condition can be an early or leading symptom of any disease, skin pathology and even oncology.

For this reason, detailed diagnostic studies should be carried out in order not to miss a serious disease.

Diagnosis

The initial examination reveals the skin condition and the presence, in addition to itching, of other signs:

  • rashes, scratching, itchy cords, cortical formations, bites;
  • redness, peeling, swelling;
  • cyanosis, redness, yellowing.

If a rash, inflammation, pustules, spotted spots, spots are found, a dermatological examination is necessary.

If the skin shows no signs of dermatoses, dermatitis, tick-borne lesions, the following tests are included in the examination:

  • general and biochemical blood test( leukocyte count, ESR);
  • urine analysis( presence of protein and fractions, sugar, bacteria, cholesterol, ALT, bilirubin, creatinine, urea, serum iron);
  • determination of blood viscosity( coagulation);
  • feces for the presence of blood, helminths;
  • radiography and ultrasound of the organs of the chest, pelvis, peritoneum;
  • level of thyroxine.

Further, after studying the reasons, we learn how to relieve pruritus in the elderly, in the child, in the adult man and in the woman during pregnancy, and how to eliminate itching at home.

For popular methods in combating skin itching, this video will tell:

Treatment

First of all, eliminate possible factors-itch provocators, which include:

  • overheating, temperature changes, direct sun rays, cold, hot water;
  • fabrics of synthetics and wool;
  • contact with allergenic substances - detergents, cosmetic, hygiene products, household and industrial chemicals;
  • medications and products that can provoke an allergy on the skin;

Decreases in intensity of

In the treatment of skin itch of different locations, the following drug groups are selected to reduce its intensity:

  • anti-malignant drugs for scabies( Benzyl benzoate, Spregal, Lindan, Permethrin, Sulfur Ointment)
  • antihistamines( Loratadine, Fexofenadine, Tavegil, Suprastin, Dimedrol, Fenkarol, are especially effective in injection), Bikarfen is an antiallergic sedative with a pronounced antipruritic effect;
  • mast cell inhibitors( Ketotifen);
  • preparations of calcium, sodium thiosulfate;
  • Naltrexone( Antakson, Vivitrol), Gabapentin, Cyclosporin A.( only on the recommendation of a physician),
  • systemic glucocorticosteroids Prednisolone, Dexamethasone;
  • sedatives( Phenobarbital), antidepressants( Paroxetine, Doxepin, Paxil, Fluvoxamine);
  • Cholestyramine, Colestipol, Rifampicin, Metronidazole, Essentiale, Resalyut, Karsil, Heptral with cholestasis( congestion of bile) on the background of hepatic pathologies;
  • sorbents Polysorb, Polypefan, white and black coal, toxins;
  • probiotics Bactistatin, Bififor, Bifiliz, Probiophore - in any pathology associated with the release of toxins or a violation of the intestinal microflora.

Local

Local treatment includes the use of the following:

  • anesthetics - Anestezin 5-10%, Phenol 1-2%, Dimedrol 5-10%, in combination with menthol antipruritic effect increases;
  • Capsaicin with extract of red pepper;
  • creams and ointments with Lidocaine, Prilokain( preliminary application with Capsaicin significantly reduces its side effect - burning sensation);
  • corticosteroid ointments - Pimafukort, Doxepin Cream, Cinaph ointment, Hydrocortisone, Elokom, Celestoderm, Beloderm, Bufeksamak, Lorinden A, C, Mezdoderm;
  • inhibitors of calcineurin - Elidel( Pimecrolimus), Tacrolimus( Protopic), Advagraf, Prograf
  • Fenistil gel, Acriderm G, Boromentol, Radevit, Psilo-balm, menthol ointment, Nizulin, Panthenol, Advantan, Baneocin, Futsidin, Levomecol, Gystan, Enterosgel;
  • topical preparations for fungal infections of the skin: Exoderyl, Tinedol, Nizoral, Zalain, Mycosporium.

Nonspecific complementary therapy

  • cold compresses( with urea) - softens, moisturizes, reduces xerosis, relieves itching;
  • ointments, creams with menthol, camphor, zinc;
  • in the presence of bacterial infection requires general and local medicines of antibacterial action;
  • physiotherapy: UV radiation, including PUVA, UVA and UVB phototherapy;

Some itching rashes, for example with prurigo, are removed by laser, cryotherapy, injections of Triamcinolone.

About the skin itching in a child will tell a specialist in the video below:

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