Atherosclerosis of the renal arteries is a chronic disease. The walls of the vessels become denser and the narrowed lumen worsens the blood supply of the organs. This can lead to very serious consequences, and sometimes can even lead to a fatal outcome for the patient. So, today we will talk about the symptoms and treatment of atherosclerosis of the renal arteries.
Features of the disease
Atherosclerosis of the renal arteries often leads to the emergence of vasorenal symptomatic hypertension. The disease that has arisen is quite difficult to treat. Especially malignant course is observed in bilateral lesions. A plaque usually occurs near the mouth of the artery or directly in it.
The main danger is the probability of developing complex arterial hypertension. The patient's condition can deteriorate quickly enough if the lesion is extensive. If a person has a hereditary burden, he has diabetes, then this is already a serious danger that can provoke kidney failure.
Such a disease as atherosclerosis of the renal arteries develops in stages.
- The first stage of is characterized by the appearance of lipid spots. The development of the disease is just beginning, so the symptoms in most cases are absent. In the presence of several factors that affect the appearance of atherosclerosis, the course of the pathology is accelerated, the spots are formed more quickly and in larger quantities.
- Stage 2 of encompasses the process of formation of fibrous plaque. It begins with the development of inflammation of the spots. A large number of immune cells accumulate in this area, trying to cope with them. Under the influence of the inflammatory process, disintegration and decomposition of fats takes place, because of which they begin to form connective tissues. At this stage, the blood flow is already significantly impaired, and the plaque itself becomes more dense in structure.
- Stage 3 of is the last one at which the development of complications directly arising from the stage of formation of fibrous plaque is already beginning. Symptoms begin to appear only at this stage. Often, this form of the disease is also called atherocalcinosis, since in the plaque begins the deposition of calcium salts. The course of the disease can be slow, but sometimes it continues to grow, worsening the blood flow worse. Against this background, the risk of occlusion is particularly high and, as a consequence, the likelihood of peritonitis, heart attack or gangrene increases.
Identify the modifiable causes, that is, those whose influence a person can exclude, including with timely treatment or simply by adjusting his lifestyle. This list includes:
- Smoking .In people who regularly inhale nicotine, the risk of hypertension is much higher, and pressure outside the permissible limits always predisposes to atherosclerosis. Like CHD and hyperlipidemia, which also develop sometimes under the influence of smoking.
- Hypertension .At high BP figures, the process of impregnation of the walls of the vessels with fat is very intense. And this, as you know, is the initial stage of atherosclerosis. It is worth noting that sometimes the very atherosclerosis of the renal arteries becomes a provoking factor for the appearance of hypertension.
- Diabetes mellitus .The presence of this diagnosis already makes the body prone to numerous diseases, but the probability of developing atherosclerosis is increased by 7 times. This is due to impaired metabolism, in particular lipid.
- Hypodynamia of .With a lack of motor activity, metabolic processes also worsen.
- Wrong food habits of .Especially often, atherosclerosis develops in lovers of abuse of various smoked foods and other fatty foods.
- Infections of the .This disease of the vessels can cause at once 2 types of infection - chlamydial and cytomegalovirus.
- Obesity .It is one of the most significant milestones in the appearance of atherosclerosis.
- Dislipidemia , that is, a disturbed fat metabolism in the body. Virtually every factor mentioned above, is to some extent associated with dyslipidemia.
To the permanent reasons that can affect the development of atherosclerosis of the aorta, include age, genetic characteristics, as well as gender.
Let's look at the symptoms of atherosclerosis of the kidneys.
Symptoms of atherosclerosis of the renal arteries
The disease manifests itself as persistent ischemia, and it subsequently provokes the development of hypertension. Stably high level of blood pressure is very dangerous for blood vessels, especially for atherosclerosis. Clinical manifestations are not so common.
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Sometimes they are simply absent, but more often still people experience pressure problems. This is due to the proliferation of atherosclerotic plaques, which narrow the lumen. What is characteristic, arterial hypertension very quickly flows into 2 form, and this already entails a serious danger for the vessels.
Slow progression of arterial hypertension is possible if only one artery is affected. In such cases, blood pressure values do not exceed dangerous limits, but simply remain elevated for a long time. With the defeat of both arteries, the course of the disease has a pronounced malignant character, the symptoms can be supplemented by general malaise, headaches, problems with urination.
There are also pains in the waist and abdomen, sometimes accompanied by vomiting and nausea. The duration of such symptoms is different and can persecute a person both for several days and a couple of hours.
The primary diagnosis is the therapist directly upon admission. In this he helps to collect anamnesis, visual examination. Considerable importance is attached to establishing the facts of the risk of the disease, for example, measurement of BMI, pressure indicators, etc.
Among the instrumental methods for clarifying the primary diagnosis use:
- MRI.Helps to accurately visualize the presence and location of plaques, gives an idea of the state of the vascular wall.
- Echocardiography. Often carried out in combination with ultrasound, special load tests are also used.
- Intravascular ultrasound, angiography, coronary angiography, other invasive procedures.
- Triplex and duplex scanning. By means of the techniques, the vessels are visualized and the rate of blood flow is established.
- Kidney scintigraphy.
- Renal angiography.
A set of therapeutic measures has several directionalities:
- Lowering cholesterol, improving its removal from the body, as well as lowering the blood levels of its metabolites.
- Substitution treatment. This is important when menopause begins.
- Lowering the production of cholesterol, as well as reducing its intake from the outside, that is, from food.
- Taking medications that affect infectious agents.
Special attention should be paid to lifestyle adjustments, especially changing eating habits. More information about the diet can be read below.
Treatment of atherosclerosis of the kidney with medicines involves the intake of several groups of drugs:
- Sequestants. Necessary to ensure the process of removing cholesterol, as well as bile acids.
- Fibrates. Affect the production of their own cholesterol, reducing it.
- Nicotinic acid. Helps reduce triglycerides, cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins.
- Statins. Also affect the production of cholesterol, reducing its number.
- Antihypertensive drugs.
Surgical treatment may also be required, but usually only in severe forms of development of the pathology or in the presence of a high risk of thrombus formation.
- Among all possible methods, an endovascular operation( stenting of the stent that holds back the blockage) or endarterectomy( open intervention technique) is used.
- Autoplasty and angioplasty of the hepatic arteries, its resection and implantation in the aorta, nephrectomy are also performed.
- There are also extracorporeal methods of treatment. These include hemosorption, cascade plasma filtration, plasmosorption. These methods are aimed at changing the composition and properties of blood through special devices.
Folk remedies for atherosclerosis can not be used as the main methods of therapy, otherwise it will entail very serious consequences for the body.
However, at the doctor's permission it is quite possible to use the recipes of broths that help strengthen the blood vessels and help lower blood pressure. So you can maintain their performance, reduce the likelihood of complications.
The prevention of atherosclerosis of the renal arteries is similar to all the preventive measures that are applied to this disease as a whole. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle, refusal from alcohol and smoking, a sufficient level of physical activity - all these measures help a lot to prevent the appearance of vascular pathology.
For secondary prevention, it is required to fulfill all the conditions of treatment and not to miss the intake of medications.
On some ways to prevent atherosclerosis of the renal arteries this video will tell:
Diet and nutrition
Special value is the maintenance of a healthy diet. Reduce the amount of fat consumed per day. However, completely stop their entry into the body can not, so many harmful animal fats are replaced by vegetable.
It is compulsory that a diet should have enough minerals and vitamins, especially C and group B. Otherwise, all the principles inherent in a balanced diet should be adhered to. Especially important is the diet for fat people, because they face the task of losing weight. Normalization of its level will significantly help in the treatment of atherosclerosis of the renal arteries.
Gradually, pathology leads to stenosis, i.e., pathological narrowing of the lumen. The kidney, remaining without proper nutrition, begins to gradually dry out, which significantly affects its functioning. A focus of chronic ischemia appears in the supply zone.
Stenosis is one of the most dangerous types of complications and can happen suddenly. A sharp overlap of the vessel leads to a heart attack of the kidney and even a rupture of the vessel. All this constitutes a potential threat to life.
The decisive factors in the formulation of the prognosis are not only the degree of development of the disease, the presence of a number of individual characteristics and even the way of life. The worst course of the clinical picture of pathology is predicted in the occurrence of necrotic areas and acute problems with blood circulation.
After surgery in 80% of cases the prognosis remains favorable.