Urinalysis is a mandatory procedure to find out the general condition of the body and the presence of any diseases. One of the indicators of this analysis is the epithelium.
It is a cellular layer lining the skin surfaces, mucous internal organs and systems. Epithelium has its own characteristics and structure.
In urine, each person has these cells, they get into it through the urethra. A sharp increase in this indicator may signal a presence in the body of an infection. By itself this element practically does not carry any information, but in combination with other indicators, it can become a signal about inflammatory processes that occur in the body. What this means we will consider below.
In addition to the amount, the type of epithelium that is secreted together with urine is also determined in the general urine test. In this biological fluid, microscopy can detect three types of epithelial cells.
- Flat epithelium - lining the urethra - their amount increases with inflammation of the urethra( urethritis).
- Transitional epithelium - covers mainly the walls of the bladder, as well as the ureters, ducts of the prostate gland, renal pelvis. Just like cells of the flat epithelium, this type of shaped elements is found in the analysis of urine in a single quantity. A sharp increase in the amount of this type of epithelium speaks of cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, urolithiasis. In addition to diseases, a number of other factors can influence the number of these cells in urine.
- Kidney epithelium - lining the renal tubules - in the urine of a healthy person should not be detected at all. The presence of the presented type of epithelial cells for children up to 1 month in number from 1 to 10 is allowed. The detection of renal cells in the human urine indicates damage to the kidney parenchyma.).
Definition of epithelial cells in the urine requires a particular accuracy from the laboratory assistant - even if the quantity is at first sight normal, it is necessary to correctly determine the type of cells - this determines the diagnosis and evaluation of the severity of a person's condition.
Norm of epithelium in urine
In women and men, epithelial cells are always found in the analysis. They get there, sluchisvayas from the mucous membrane of the urinary tract. Depending on the origin, transitional vtc( bladder), flat( lower parts of the urinary tract) and kidney( kidney) epithelium are isolated. The increase in epithelial cells in the urinary sediment suggests inflammatory diseases and poisoning with salts of heavy metals.
Norm of epithelium in urine:
- in children 0-1 / Negative;
- in men and women 0-1-2-3 in sight.
The amount of epithelium found in the urine depends on whether there is a pathology in the body. The indicator of no more than 3 units means that the person is completely healthy. If the cells of the epithelium are larger, then the inflammation of the urethra is preliminary diagnosed, which is quite often observed in men.
The disease is caused by viruses and bacteria. In women, such an amount of epithelial cells does not always mean the presence of disease. Often a reanalysis is carried out: it may be that the patient has incorrectly made urine sampling.
How to pass the test correctly?
Cells of flat epithelium are often detected in urine as a result of inadequate preparation for analysis.
- The urine should be transferred to the laboratory within 1-2 hours after urination.
- For menstruation, it is better to refrain from taking the test.
- Collection of urine is carried out only in a clean( preferably sterilized) container, a sufficient amount of urine - 100 ml.
The main rule that must be adhered to is carrying out hygienic procedures of the external genitalia before collecting urine.
Causes of increased flat epithelium in urine
If squamous epithelial cells in the urine are found to be above normal, this means the presence of an inflammatory process. Here are the diseases that are diagnosed in adults, if the analysis indicates high rates:Neuropathy of medicinal nature .Structural and functional changes in the kidneys that develop on the background of pharmacological therapy.
If the value in women is increased, this does not always mean a serious illness( one of the above), while for a man this is a warning signal for his health.
Renal epithelium in the urine: causes of
If an increased concentration of renal epithelium in the urine is found, this fact identifies the kidney diseases occurring in the body, for example, about the damage to the kidney parenchyma, because the kidney epithelium forms the surface of the tubules in the kidneys. The cause of inflammation is intoxication, infections, pyelonephritis, circulatory failure, glomerulonephritis.
If the patient underwent kidney transplantation and three days later the result of the analysis shows the presence of a renal variety, and its content is 15 and higher in the field of view, this fact indicates the possibility of rejection of the allograft.
Transient epithelium in urine: causes of
The transitional epithelium lining the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, large ducts of the prostate and the upper part of the urethra. The cells of the transitional epithelium in the urine of healthy people are found in a single quantity.
An increase in the number of cells of the transitional epithelium can be observed with cystitis, pyelonephritis, kidney stone disease. Norms of transitional epithelium do not have subdivisions in accordance with age and sex. The maximum amount for a healthy person is no more than 3 cells in urine.