Duodenitis is the inflammatory disease of the duodenum. Pathology is quite common among people of different ages. To pathology did not manage to develop into a chronic disease, it is necessary to provide proper therapy in due time.
Sometimes the pathology is still chronic, leaking in different morphological variants. One of the more "peaceful" duodenitis is a superficial type of disease, in which the mucosal tissues of the duodenum thicken and form folds. In this case, inflammation is localized only on the upper thickness of the mucous layer.
Causes of the disease
Surface duodenitis appears exclusively as a secondary pathology against the background of an already existing gastrointestinal tract such as pancreatitis, gastric ulcer, enterocolitis or gastritis.
But in isolated cases such duodenitis develops as an independent inflammatory pathological process caused by prolonged unhealthy diet with daily intake of irritating food and alcohol.
The main causes of superficial duodenitis are:
- Abuse of acute and sour, fatty and fried, bitter food when the percentage of its consumption is half the total amount of food;
- Irregular food intakes, snacks in the dry and on the go;
- Acute poisoning, the consequence of which is often the development of superficial duodenitis due to exposure to toxins on the mucosa of the duodenum;
- Increased acidity index of the gastrointestinal tract, in which gastric acid penetrates the cavity of the duodenum and irritates its mucosa;
- Abuse of alcoholic beverages, incl. And beer.
Forms of inflammation
The superficial type of duodenitis can occur in several forms:
- Superficial gastroduodenitis - represents a mixed pathological form, in which the gastritis clinic combines with duodenitis;
- Proximal surface inflammation is a chronic lesion that begins to affect the deeper layers of the PDC.
Chronic forms of superficial inflammation of the duodenum are treated exclusively in hospital, and gastroduodenitis requires treatment of gastritis symptoms first, and only then inflammation in the intestinal tissues is removed.
Proximal form of
Proximal duodenitis refers to the inflammatory lesion of the area of articulation of the stomach with the duodenum, this section is called the proximal or bulb of the duodenum, therefore inflammation of such a localization is often referred to as bulbitis.
The disease usually develops in conjunction with such gastrointestinal pathologies as peptic ulcer disease of the duodenum or stomach or chronic gastritis, etc.
Special bulb damage of the duodenum usually acts as a fundamental factor in the development of this form of inflammation. It is located at the junction of the stomach and intestines, where acid from the stomach penetrates.
It is also in the bulb that produces the bile duct, so the combination of such irritating factors, along with gastrointestinal pathologies, unhealthy addictions and wrong foods, provokes the development of superficial bulbitis or proximal surface duodenitis.
Superficial duodenitis gastritis
Gastroduodenitis of the surface type is a mucosal lesions of the gastric and duodenal shell. The development of such an inflammatory process is localized exclusively on the mucous surface, without affecting the deeper layers of the gastrointestinal tract.
If gastroduodenitis is not treated in a timely manner, the pathology gradually becomes chronic, accompanied by a number of complications, which only aggravates the patient's condition.
Statistics are such that the incidence of this disease increases yearly, especially in patients of senior school age. At an older age, gastroduodenitis passes into a chronic gastritis or gastric ulcer, as superficial inflammation of the mucosa is considered to be the foregoing stage of these diseases.
Therefore, timely treatment of superficial duodenitis gastritis will avoid such dangerous complications.
For surface duodenitis, typical manifestations are as follows:
- Painful tingling in the umbilical region;
- Soreness in the stomach;
- Frequent nausea and vomiting;
- Heartburn and increased salivation;Dizziness with characteristic weakness;
- Reduced performance;
- When palpation, there are very unpleasant sensations in the abdomen;
- Excessive tension of abdominal muscles.
The most common complication of superficial duodenitis is chronic inflammation.
In addition, the progression of pathological changes on mucous membranes can provoke such complications:
- Abundant internal bleeding;
- Erosive and ulcerative lesions of the duodenum;
- Adhesive formations;
- Perforation of the gut;
- Formation of neoplasms of benign and oncological nature.
Similar complications usually develop in the absence of therapeutic measures or in the case of improper implementation.
Clinical manifestations of superficial inflammation of the duodenum are unspecific, so they can easily be confused with manifestations of other pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.
Only a qualified specialist in the field of gastroenterology can correctly diagnose and accurately diagnose pathology. Correctly performed diagnostics allows to determine the presence of accompanying pathologies, which always occur during inflammation of the mucosa of the DPC.
The first manifestations of the pathology of an experienced specialist will determine already at the initial reception on the basis of anamnesis collection, palpation of the abdomen and information provided by the patient.
To confirm the diagnosis, the patient is assigned additional diagnostic procedures:
- A blood test that, when duodenitis, shows reduced hemoglobin and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
- Stool studies will reveal the presence of hidden blood.
- Fibrogastroduodenoscopy involves examination of the duodenum by means of an endoscope, which, when duodenitis, shows erosive lesions of the walls and flushing of the mucous membranes, swelling, hemorrhages and follicular formations on the mucous membranes, as well as atrophy of the intestinal walls.
- Research of the pH of the esophagus at which gastric acidity is determined. To do this, from the 12 duodenum and stomach using a special probe, the contents are taken, after which it is examined for acid.
- Radiography involves diagnosing with the use of contrast medication( usually barium sulfate), which envelops the walls of the gut and provides high-quality images. With duodenitis, this diagnosis will show the presence of ulcerative lesions on the intestinal walls, as well as the presence of narrowed and dilated areas in the 12-duodenum.
Treatment of superficial duodenitis
In the treatment of superficial duodenitis, a comprehensive approach is applied with the use of drug therapy and a dietary nutrition program. At the same time, the patient requires strict adherence to all medical recommendations and prescriptions.
- To eliminate painful symptoms it is recommended to take antispasmodics such as No-shpa and Riaball, Drotaverin and Meverin.
- For the elimination of emetic reactions, the use of drugs such as Cirucal and Motilium, Domperidon and Motorix, Metoclopramide, etc. is recommended. Therapy presupposes intramuscular injection of these medications.
- If superficial inflammation of the duodenum is accompanied by erosive lesions, it is recommended to take enveloping preparations such as Maalox or Almagel.
- To reduce gastric acidity, Reni or Gaviscon preparations are indicated. To reduce the irritant effect on the mucosa prescribed Famotidine or Ranitidine, Kwamatel.
- Additionally, in erosive processes, De-nol, Omeprazole, etc. are prescribed.
Inflammatory lesions well remove herbal infusions from chamomile flowers, calendula and coltsfoot.
Also you can not do without a therapeutic diet, which involves the use of liquid cereals and jelly, mucous soups and liquid steam omelettes for a minimum of two weeks.
Then the diet is supplemented with steamed meat cutlets or fish, the use of the wiped meat soups, etc. The irritating harmful food is strictly forbidden. It includes any smoked and spicy, marinades and spices, fried and sour.
Also under the strictest ban is smoking and alcohol.