Askaridosis is a dangerous parasitic disease that is spread all over the world, but until the end of the medical profession has not yet been studied. The complexity of the study of the habitat lies in the fact that ascarids live only in the human body, experimenting with a living patient is a violation of professional ethics, which is why it is not yet possible to defeat the invasion even in highly developed countries.
Ignore ascaridosis in children and adults can not, it causes complex damage to all internal systems, promotes the formation of allergens and even provokes the onset of cancer. That is why, today great importance is attached to the early diagnosis of helminthiosis. Its main part is the analysis of blood for antibodies. When is he appointed? What is the essence of the described diagnostic procedure? What deviations from the norm should make you wary? About all this in the article?
Diagnosis of ascaridosis by blood
Often it is with ascariasis that a blood test for antibodies is performed. Why is a similar laboratory method used? The answer to this question gives an understanding of the vital features of parasites. Being inside the human body, ascarids feed on the blood of the host, during their life they produce toxins and antigens - special compounds that the immune system perceives as alien.
As a response to their presence, active production of special antibodies( immunoglobulin), which can bind antigens and neutralize them, begins. The ELISA test shows the number of antibodies. They are labeled with the Ig marker, the level of concentration of AT in the blood allows you to confirm the diagnosis, as well as determine the stage of infection.
Several types of antibodies can be detected with the course of helminthiosis. An additional letter can be attached to the Ig marker:
- If an early stage of ascariasis is detected( up to five days after the onset of infection), an IgM tag will appear in the test records.
- IgG designation indicates that helminthiosis has been occurring in the human body for three six weeks( during this time the stage of migration of the larvae is already over, those that are deposited in the intestine are already actively developing and are preparing to enter the stage of puberty).
Please note! The analysis of blood for antibodies and antigens to ascarids does not reveal the presence of parasitic biomaterial in the diagnosed samples. It only shows how the organism of a child or adult reacts to the development of helminthic invasion. That is why an enzyme-linked immunoassay is carried out only in certain cases. We denote the most basic of them.
When do I pass an IFA for ascariasis?
The blood test for ascarids is performed lastly after other diagnostic procedures. Usually for the detection of ascariasis, a general blood test, lung radiography, feces analysis for the presence of helminth eggs are performed. If the answers to them do not differ from the norm, only then the patient will be offered to pass an analysis for antibodies and antigens. In order to make a complete picture of the disease, it is necessary to make different Ig markers( A, M, G, E, D).Only this way it will be possible to understand which stage ascariasis has entered. This is a rather expensive choice, but resorting to it still stands in especially difficult cases. When is it expedient to conduct an enzyme-linked immunoassay? Special indications are:
- Identification of the pathogen when suspected of mixed infestations.
- Epidemiological studies of foci of invasion, in which a large number of patients are involved.
- Evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment of ascaridosis.
- Detection of a large number of eosinophils in the blood.
How many antibodies are stored? It makes no sense to do an enzyme immunoassay three months after infection with ascaridosis. After this period, the human body ceases to produce an immunoglobulin for ascaris. During this period, the most informative is the surrender of stool, it is he who is able to give a positive response. Taking this into account, physicians conditionally distinguish two diagnostic directions: early diagnosis( enzyme immunoassay), and late diagnosis( feces delivery for determining the eggs of worms in it).
How to prepare for the blood test for antibodies to ascarids?
Analysis for antibodies requires some preparation. To obtain objective results, the following recommendations help:
- You do not need to eat for twelve hours before the procedure.
- You can not smoke on the day of the test for ascariasis, you can not drink alcohol and use any narcotic substances.
- For two days before blood donation for antibodies, you should not take any medications. If a sick child or an adult passes any medication during the diagnosis, he should tell the lab technician who will take blood from the vein to the antibodies.
Interpretation of the results of the ascaridosis
test After the laboratory analysis of the laboratory, the results will be decoded. They can be represented in three variations. The assay for antibodies can be:
If the result is positive, the titer( T) is detected more than 1/100( 1/200, for example).What do the numbers mean? This is a quantitative coefficient that allows to accurately confirm the presence of parasites within the human body, the development of the first stage of helminthiosis, in which the migration of ascarid larvae occurs. Such a decipherment entitles the attending physician to make the most accurate treatment regimen, and also to assign a diagnostic examination to all members of the family of the infected person. If positive results are found, quarantine is introduced into the family.
Which means a negative titer( T is less than 1/100).It indicates the absence of the described helminthiosis, or the inability to detect IgG.Such a response can be obtained in the very first days of infection, as well as at a rather late development of the invasion.
What happens when specific antibodies are detected in the patient's blood, the number of which is close to normal or borderline? In this case, the patient will be asked to re-assay for antibodies two weeks after treatment. It is important in carrying out the repeated procedure will contact the same laboratory where the first ELISA was made. This will help eliminate errors in the use of different reagents. What can be considered the norm? The answer is "AT negative".
Advantages of blood analysis for antibodies against ascarids
Despite the high cost and relative complexity of the test, the antibody test for ascariasis has a number of positive advantages. Let's designate the most basic of them:
- Immunoenzyme research allows to identify and confirm the invasion in 95% of cases. No other diagnostic study yields similar results.
- Only antibody analysis helps to detect helminthiasis at the earliest stages of its development.
- After giving an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, you can let the doctor in charge monitor the dynamics of the disease and the effectiveness of the chosen therapy.
- Doctors use the described study in conducting mass studies when the diagnostic time is limited in time.
Often, AT to askarids, according to the authoritative doctor Komarovsky, allows you to begin the necessary medication at the first stages of migration of larvae. This significantly reduces the destructive processes provoked by the presence of parasites within the human body. Therefore, if someone is offered to pass or undergo the described diagnostic examination, it should not be ignored. With timely therapy, predictions are always positive.