Tumor formation on the lateral surface of the neck should not be ignored. In some people, a change in the normal anatomy of the neck may be a sign of chemodectomy.
In addition to localization on the neck, the chemodectomy can be located inside the orbit, in the middle ear, nasopharynx, on the arch of the aorta, in the node of the vagus nerve. Approximately in 5% of patients this tumor is malignant with time.
Species and localization by chemodectome
Chemodectomes are considered rare enough neoplasms and therefore this pathology has not been studied to the end. This tumor is divided into the following species:
- The carotid chemodectome is considered the most typical variant of education. It begins to grow in the branch of the branches from the carotid artery. If the size of this tumor is large, then it begins to germinate towards the posterior parapharyngeal space and may manifest in the person neurological disorders and pharyngeal symptoms.
- Vaginectomy of the vagus nerve grows from the ganglion of the nerve, is located immediately in the parapharyngeal region. This formation is manifested by intensification with the growth of pharyngeal and neurologic symptoms. Too large a tumor can enter the base of the skull.
Patients with atypical location of the tumor were identified - in the supraclavicular space, the retina of the eye, behind the neck.
Neoplasms can be divided into types according to their anatomical features:
- The first type is a "small" tumor. It closely adjoins to the walls of carotid arteries, size up to 2, 5 cm.
- The second type is a "large" tumor. This neoplasm is already welded to the outer shell of the carotid arteries and partially germinates in them. Dimensions less than 5 cm
- The third type is also a "large" tumor, but its size is more than 5 cm. Neoplasm is closely soldered to the carotid arteries from all sides.
Approximately three percent of patients have a two-way chemodectomy.
Patients with a detected chemodectomy are thoroughly examined and their life history is studied. But until now the exact cause of the formation of this type of tumor has not been established.
A hereditary predisposition to the development of a chemodectomy is assumed, and the defective gene is transmitted through the male line.
In addition, the risk of developing chemodectomy in people exposed to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation and after neck and skull injuries increases.
Chemodectomy can develop for a long time without manifesting uncomfortable sensations. The localization of the carotid tumor is the lateral surface of the neck with anterior displacement and lower from the angle of the lower jaw.
The chemodectomy has no precise contours, but it is smooth to the touch and not soldered to the skin and muscles. At attempts of its movement it is possible to make it in horizontal movement, movement of formation downwards upwards, that is it is vertical, it is impossible.
If you palpate, you can feel how the tumor is pulsating, and if you perform an auscultation of the carotid artery bifurcation site, you can listen to a slight systolic murmur in about 10% of the patients.
Of the subjective feelings, patients most often complain about:
- Periodic feeling of dizziness.
- Difficulty in swallowing food.
A chemodectomy localized in the cervical region of the vagus nerve can manifest itself with the following symptoms:
- Pressing a club against a neoplasm causes a person to have a coughing attack.
- When examining the tongue, you can see its deviation from the median line.
- With prolonged development of chemodectomy and in the absence of its treatment, muscle atrophy occurs at the site of the tumor.
- Possible hoarseness of voice, difficulty swallowing food and saliva, sensation of foreign matter in the larynx.
With malignancy, the tumor growth rate increases several times, infiltration of a number of located tissues and metastasis is revealed.
Patients most often initially refer to a surgeon for the presence of a seal on the neck. After examination, the surgeon must send the patient to consult an oncologist who, in order to confirm the diagnosis or refute it, appoints a series of instrumental examinations.
Usually the patient is offered to undergo:
- ultrasound. Scanning the neck allows you to detect the tumor and reveal its structure.
- Radiography is used as a comparative method. This examination helps to differentiate chemodectoma and lymphadenitis, cysts, neurinomas.
- Angiography is the study of vessels after the administration of contrast medium in them. This method allows you to determine the location of the lesion in relation to the carotid arteries.
- Biopsy is mandatory when suspected of chemodectomy. A piece of tumor tissue is taken with a special puncture needle and then sent for histological analysis. When receiving tissue elements of the thyroid gland or lymph node chemodectomus is refuted.
The complexity of chemodectectomy diagnostics makes it possible to correctly diagnose only about 40% of patients.
If the origin of the tumor causes difficulty, then the appointment of a computer tomography or MRI.
Treatment of patients with detected chemodectomas should be performed only in specialized medical institutions, where highly qualified vascular surgeons work, and the latest medical equipment is used.
Growth of the tumor with the walls of the carotid arteries and germination inside them increases the risk of developing severe complications during the operation. Complete removal of the tumor is achieved only by surgical intervention.
If the removal of the lesion due to its anatomical location is not possible, then patients are offered radiotherapy and chemotherapy to alleviate their condition.
The technique of operation is selected depending on the degree of pathologically altered tissues. With malignant neoplasm in most cases, it is necessary to remove part of the carotid artery with its replacement with artificial materials. Working with a large number of blood vessels assumes the surgeon has high qualifications and modern microsurgical techniques.
This method of treatment is used in the case of impossibility of surgical intervention or with the residual finding of cancers after surgery.
Radiation therapy sessions somewhat alleviate the condition of the patient, but do not always completely help to cope with the disease. The use of the newest facilities allows you to work only on the tumor, the risk of side effects in this case is reduced many times.
Chemotherapeutic methods are effective in the case of treatment of those patients in whom chemodectomes differ sensitivity to cytostatics. Select systemic or topical administration of chemotherapy on the basis of the presence or absence of metastases in the body.
In addition to specific methods of treatment, the patient is selected symptomatic therapy, that is, treatment aimed at improving overall well-being.
Prognosis of survival and preventive measures
Benign in the course of the chemodectomy, as a rule, does not have a pronounced negative effect on the life of the patient. After a timely operation in 95% of cases, the patient completely recovered within a short time.
To increase your chances of a full recovery, you need to contact the surgeon and insist on a thorough examination if you find the slightest seals on the neck, as in other parts of the body.