Venous thrombosis is a disease in which blood clots create an obstruction in the vein for the flow of blood. This disease is characterized by the fact that it sometimes occurs asymptomatically. Blood clots in the blood vessels can pose a threat to life, therefore when entering a risk group for this disease, it is better to be examined by specialists. All the more worth paying attention to health, if there are signs of arterial and venous thrombosis.
What is it?
Reducing the lumen of the vein due to the accumulation on the walls of the vessel clots of coagulated blood. Such formations cause obstacles in the way of blood flow and create health problems.
Because blood carries tissues necessary for vital activity, difficult blood flow contributes to their deficiency. If there is a complete blockage of the vessel - necrosis and tissue destruction.
In the following video, you will see what the venous thrombosis of the lower extremities looks like on CT:
Classification of venous thrombosis
For reasons of
The disorder is subdivided into species depending on the causes that triggered the appearance of thrombi.
- The problem is caused by diseases that lead to disruption of homeostasis of internal media: associated with improper metabolism, cancer, liver problems.
- Thrombosis caused by congestion( often occurs with lower limb varicose or if there is an internal cause, in connection with which the vein is pressed down, which makes it difficult for the blood to flow).
- Thrombosis resulting from the inflammatory process:
- after trauma,
- after infectious disease,
- as a consequence of medical manipulation,
- allergic reaction due to the reaction of the immune system
Photo of venous thrombosis
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By localization of thrombus
By localization of thrombus in the vessel with respect to its walls and attachment to them, the disease is classified:
- Flotation thrombus - clot is poorly attached to the vessel wall and can come off and migrate with blood flow. This phenomenon presents an acute threat to life if a thrombus gets stuck in the pulmonary artery. It can block blood flow in other places, and provoke necrosis of adjacent tissues and gangrene.
- Priestovennoe thrombosis - a thrombus in the vessel does not cover the possibility for the flow of blood completely, there is a lumen. The thrombus body is attached to the vein wall.
- Occlusive thrombosis - blood flow in the vein is impossible because of the complete overlap by thrombotic formation of the lumen of the vessel.
By the localization of the disease
By the localization of the disease are distinguished:
- Thrombophlebitis. The appearance of thrombi in the superficial veins located in the lower limbs. Often is a complication of varicose veins.
- Acute thrombosis. Deep vein disease.
- In the lower extremities, acute venous thrombosis can occur in the segments:
- Less common are vascular thromboses:
- portal vein,
- cervical sinus,
- jugular vein,
- and ileofemoral thrombosis,
- of the umbilical cord,
- subclavian vein.
- In the lower extremities, acute venous thrombosis can occur in the segments:
The formation of blood clots in the veins occurs for several reasons. The main factors associated with changes in the body:
- Increase the viscosity of blood and its ability to create clots.
- Disease of the walls of blood vessels, leading to a change in its structure.
- Change of blood flow velocity in the direction of decrease.
To the described phenomena lead:
- Sedentary way of life. People whose work is associated with the need to stay in frozen positions for a long time, lying patients are prone to the appearance of blood clots. Athletes who are actively training after a long ride in the car, too, fall into the risk zone. It is recommended to do warm-ups.
- The increased weight creates the same prerequisites.
- It has been experimentally proved that during the flight in an airplane the propensity to thrombosis is intensified. To reduce the risk factor used under the feet of special supports. They soften the seat edge pressure on the femoral part of the legs.
- Pregnancy. Due to forced vasoconstriction of the vessels with an enlarged uterus, a tendency to thrombosis appears. This is also promoted by hormonal changes and disorders associated with blood coagulability. The cesarean section creates conditions in which the risk of blockage of the veins increases.
- Injuries and surgical interventions may be the cause of thrombosis, because the walls of the vessels are damaged and the body, including recovery, can form a thrombus.
- Some diseases by their nature can create thrombi: diabetes, oncology.
- Smoking lowers immunity and makes any breakdowns in regulatory mechanisms more possible.
- Age - slowing metabolism, sedentary way of life, decreased immunity contribute to stagnant phenomena, because of which there are thrombi.
Next, you will learn about the symptoms of deep and shallow venous thrombosis.
Scheme of appearance of venous thrombosis
- Redness of the skin above the site of a possible thrombus.
- Edema of tissues in an area where the blood clot obstructs the movement of blood. If, for example, a blood clot on the leg, the blood in this place will be worse from the leg to the organs above and therefore the leg may become swollen.
- Pain while moving.
- In the muscles of the legs can be felt bursting, sometimes a sense of heaviness, stiffness.
- Acute thrombosis may occur for a short time.
To determine the thrombus and all the necessary corrections, the specialist prescribes a test:
- MR-phlebography - makes it possible to determine the location of a clot. The study allows you to receive a signal from the movement of blood. Where there is no movement due to a clot, there is no signal.
- MNO of blood - a study of blood for its ability to fold.
- Phlebography - in case there is a suspicion of a flotation thrombus, ultrasound of the vessel is produced after a contrast agent is injected into it.
- Ultrasound duplex examination makes it possible to view the lumens of blood vessels.
On what treatment is prescribed for venous thrombosis, you will learn further.
In the event that the study of the situation did not indicate an existential threat to life, the treatment starts with taking medications as part of a complex therapy. If the conducted course did not give the expected results, then they resort to an operative intervention.
In order for an organism to stop forming blood clots, a specialist prescribes drugs that correct blood properties and remove those qualities that lead to the creation of clots in the veins. These can be:
- capsules of anticoagulants,
- injections of heparin.
Drug therapy is performed with mandatory control of blood counts. After removing the acute period, the doctor can include a special charge in the treatment.
If there are indications for surgical intervention, then choose a method depending on the location of the site with the thrombus and the features of the problem. Prior to resolving the situation, the patient is advised to be at rest so as not to provoke thrombus migration.
Methods are applied:
- The installation of the arteriovenous shunt problem in the site is a tube of synthetic material, with which a new path is created for the blood flow around the thrombosed area.
- Stitching of the vein - often used in varicose veins. The site where the patency is broken, stitches and it falls out of the circulatory system. The method provides that the vein, which has become thus unnecessary, must disappear.
- Thrombus can be removed by thrombolysis. Through a catheter inserted into a vessel, a thrombus is supplied with a substance that is capable of dissolving it.
- Operative method - crossectomy.
Other methods of
Sometimes it is advisable to use a metal implant installation in a vein in order to catch thrombi. The umbrella is inserted into the inferior vein through the vessel.
The implant is capable of capturing blood clots that occur in the blood stream. The device is called a cava filter. Replaces the need for an operation.
On the prevention of venous thrombosis, including perianal, intestines and other organs, we will discuss further.
Prevention of the disease
Pathology contributes to blood stasis, and its propensity to create blood clots.
- It is necessary to avoid situations of long standing in one position, it is necessary to warm up periodically.
- Avoid leg pose on the foot.
- Do not wear shy clothing, straps.
- To practice swimming.
- Walking before going to bed.
- Observe a diet that does not promote blood viscosity.
- Eat more foods with vitamin E.
- Do not include foods that contain vitamin K.
- Take care that there is enough fiber in the food: fruits, vegetables.
- Use products that can reduce the viscosity of blood: artichoke, apple cider vinegar, pepper, garlic.
- Fluids in the daily diet should be a moderate amount.
- Avoid dishes that retain liquid in tissues( salty).
- Ask a doctor about which products to dispose of.
If the disease is not treated and the clot is severed, it can, after falling into the pulmonary artery, cause an immediate death. Having created a blockage in other places, the thrombus can provoke a heart attack, stroke and other problems that can make the patient disabled.
If infection occurs in the place where the thrombus was formed, then its body can collapse, and the blood-stream splinters will spread throughout the body. In this case, there is a threat of the appearance of metastatic abscesses in those places where parts of the clot lingered.
- If timely deep vein thrombosis is not detected and treated, there is a threat of death due to pulmonary embolism. This applies mostly to the lower limbs.
- If thrombosis caused temporary factors( trauma, forced temporary immobility, surgery), then after treatment, the disease is usually not returned.
- If the causes of venous thrombosis did not go away( oncology, diabetes, metabolic disorders, heart failure), after a successful course of treatment, thrombi may form again.
In the next video you will learn even more useful information regarding venous thrombosis: