Enteritis has various forms, which is due to the presence of various factors. The main for the disease are acute and chronic forms. What are the characteristics of each of them?
The acute form of the disease appears in case of infection of the gastrointestinal tract with an infectious disease. Also, the reason for the onset of the development of acute enteritis type are severe food poisoning, food allergic reaction and so on. The mucosal cavity of the small intestine begins to swell, increase, and its secretory functionality increases. In severe cases, local hemorrhages and feces with blood impurities may appear. A characteristic feature of the acute type of the disease is the presence of strong painful sensations in the periapical zone. In this case, diarrhea arises, vomiting occurs and the temperature regime of the body increases.
The acute form of enteritis is divided by localization into: duodenitis, jejunite and ileitis. In accordance with the degree of lesions, the catarrhal, fibrous, purulent and necrotic-ulcer type of the disease are distinguished. In catarrhal disease, inflammation will be observed not only on the mucosa, but also on the submucosa. Mucous swelling, there are small erosion and hemorrhage. With fibrous enteritis on the mucosa there are overlays of a film having a gray or gray-brown color. The surface of the colon is necrotic, and croupous inflammation manifests.
The chronic form of enteritis does not arise as an independent disease and is an overflow of acute type. The forms of chronic enteritis are atrophic and non-atrophic. The latter type will be characterized by an uneven index of the thickness of the villi located in the distal sections, as well as the appearance of clavate thickenings.
The etiology of this form of the disease is still unknown. The lesion is directed to the cavity of the stomach, the small and large intestine. A characteristic feature is the appearance of an eosinophilic infiltrate, on the surface of the intestinal walls without the symptoms of vasculitis. This form of the disease begins to recur, and its symptoms are very diverse. Depending on which layer of the wall has the greater lesion, three main subspecies are distinguished:
- The appearance of mucosal lesions will lead to iron deficiency anemia, moderate steatorrhea and exudative enteropathy. The main manifestation is a violation of the absorption process, and intolerance to certain foods.
- If the muscular membrane is predominantly affected, thickening and stiffness of the gastric walls and proximal part of the small intestine cavity is observed. Also possible intestinal obstruction and stenosis of the pylorus.
- Superserous nodes are affected in the manifestation of ascites with eosinophilia.
It is worth noting that the possibility of a relapse of this form of enteritis due to food allergic reaction is reduced to less than 20% of cases. Predominantly, with eosinophilic enteritis, there are painful sensations in the abdominal region, diarrhea and an increase in the level of immunoglobulins. In the treatment of this form, glucocorticoids are used as the main medication, in the form of an auxiliary drug - Kromolin and Ketotifen. If there is an intestinal obstruction, then a surgical procedure is performed.