1 Basic Diseases
Inflammation of the eye is a collective concept. There is no such disease, in which all structures would immediately inflame. More often the inflammatory process affects any one site or an envelope. The human eye has a complex structure. It is formed by the eyeball, the nerve and the auxiliary apparatus( eyelids, eyebrows, eyelashes).The eyeball itself consists of a nucleus and membranes.
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The core is formed by the vitreous body, the lens and watery moisture. Shells 3. External - is represented by the cornea and sclera, the middle - by the iris, the ciliary body and the vascular membrane itself, and the retina is located inside. The most common inflammation is the following eye structures:
- lacrimal organs;
- vessels of the eye;
- eye socket( bone tissue).
Both adults and children face this pathology.
2 Key etiological factors
Inflammation of the eye can be both infectious and non-infectious. There are the following possible causes of inflammation of the eye:
- irritation by wind;
- ingress of foreign objects( sand, debris);
- presence of ticks;
- fungal diseases;
- infection with dirty hands;
- infectious diseases( measles, syphilis, scarlet fever, gonorrhea, rheumatism, chlamydia);
- acute shortage of vitamins( scurvy);
- prolonged visual overexertion;
- viral diseases( adenovirus infection, herpes).
Often, inflammation of the eye is a consequence of the ingress of various substances( acids, alkalis, alcohol, dust).Often the inflammatory process develops after an insect bite. Predisposing factors include neglect of personal hygiene rules and reduced immunity. The greatest danger is inflammation of the internal structures of the eye, since in this situation there is a risk of infection or pus spreading to the brain.
3 Conjunctival lesions
Very often inflammation of the eye mucosa is observed as a conjunctivitis. The conjunctiva is the membrane that covers the eye from the outside and the back of the eyelids. It forms a tear fluid, which is necessary to maintain the moisture of the eyeball. Conjunctivitis accounts for up to 30% of all eye diseases. Inflammation of the conjunctiva is primary and secondary.
Distinguish the following forms of pathology:
- is viral;
- paratrahoma( chlamydial inflammation);
- is traumatic;
- is allergic.
The most common bacterial form of inflammation of the eye mucosa. Infection occurs in the home. Pathogens are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cocci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Protea. Sometimes inflammation is caused by gonococci and pale treponema. In children, conjunctivitis is often combined with otitis media. Chlamydial infection is more common in young people who have an active sex life.
Symptoms of conjunctivitis depend on its etiology. Bacterial form of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye is characterized by purulent secretions of yellow or greenish color, dry eyes and adjacent skin, and pain. There is always redness. With acute inflammation, symptoms of intoxication appear in the form of fever and weakness.
Symptoms are less pronounced in subacute inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye. Chronic conjunctivitis is manifested by eye fatigue, a feeling of a foreign object. There is a slight redness in the examination. With the viral etiology of conjunctivitis, there is lacrimation, a phobia of light and eyelid closure is observed. Often enlarged lymph nodes. Conjunctivitis against blastomycosis is characterized by the formation of gray or yellowish films.
4 Diseases of the edge of the eyelid
Among the inflammatory diseases of the eyelids, there is often blepharitis. The prevalence of this pathology among the population is about 30%.The most frequently ill are those of advanced age( from 40 to 70 years).In the absence of proper treatment, blepharitis can cause damage to the cornea, conjunctiva and vision loss. Infectious blepharitis is caused by various microbes, and non-infectious caused by allergies or other eye diseases.
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Very often the eyelids become inflamed with allergies to food and medicine. The cause of inflammation can be demodecosis, herpes, molluscum contagiosum, dry eye syndrome. Clinical signs of blepharitis depend on the type of inflammation. Simple blepharitis is manifested by the thickening of the eyelid, redness, accumulation of secret in the corners of the eye. Redness is not very pronounced. The scaly form is distinguished by the formation of scales on the eyelid.
This pathology often develops against the background of seborrhea. The ulcerous form is very serious. When it forms crusts and sores. Pronounced itching, thickening and reddening of the eyelids, the presence of a sticky secret and pain in the eyes - all these are signs of demodectic blepharitis. The presence of pustules and nodules indicates the development of rosacea-blepharitis.
5 Cornea of the eye
Often inflamed anterior transparent membrane( cornea).This condition is called keratitis. This disease is most often caused by an infection. Often the causes of inflammation are wearing contact lenses and an allergic reaction. Professional keratitis develops in welders. To severe consequences of purulent keratitis refers to the appearance of ulcers.
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This can cause death of the eye and the need for enucleation. The main clinical sign of keratitis is corneal syndrome. It includes a decrease in vision, pain in the eye, increased sensitivity to bright light, lacrimation, the closing of the eyelids( blepharospasm), the feeling of a foreign body.
The pain is caused by irritation of the nerve endings, which in the eye abound. When examining the eye in the anterior chamber, a cluster of pus is often found. If the inflammation of the cornea is associated with the defeat of the trigeminal nerve, the corneal syndrome will be weakly expressed. In this case, the sensitivity of the cornea decreases.
Superficial keratitis proceeds more easily than deep. In untimely treatment or its absence, the inflammation of the cornea can result in the formation of thorns, anterior synechia( fusion), accumulation of pus in the vitreous, glaucoma, cataracts and optic neuritis. Keratitis is often combined with conjunctivitis.
6 The anterior part of the vascular coating
In ophthalmic practice, a condition such as iridocyclitis often occurs. It is characterized by inflammation of the anterior part of the choroid( iris and ciliary body).The most common causes are infection( influenza, streptococcal infection, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes), eye trauma, rheumatism, gout, allergy. Usually this form of eye inflammation is diagnosed in young people under the age of 40 years.
Inflammation can be acute and chronic. In most cases, only one eye suffers. Isolated iris damage( iritis) is diagnosed much less often.
Acute iridocyclitis is manifested by pain, increasing with pressure on the eyeball, lacrimation, photophobia, a moderate decrease in visual acuity, the appearance of fog or blisters before the eyes.
Inflammation can change the color of the iris. With iridocyclitis, pus or blood often accumulates in the anterior chamber of the eye. Inflammation of the vitreous humor and the presence of secretions can cause a decrease in visual acuity and clouding of the lens. In acute forms of inflammation and increased secretion, the pressure inside the eye increases. The autoimmune iridocyclitis is difficult. It often recurs and causes the development of cataracts, glaucoma and atrophy of 2 pairs of cranial nerves.
7 Other possible pathologies
The group of inflammatory diseases of the eye includes retinitis. This is inflammation of the retina. The latter is part of the optical system of the eye. It is on the retina that the image is formed. Most often, inflammation is caused by the penetration of microbes from the focus of infection. This is possible with tuberculosis, syphilis, influenza, pyelonephritis, erysipelas.
The cause may be trauma to the eye. Retinitis can be recognized by the following symptoms:
- severe pain;
- loss of visual fields;
- violation of the dark adaptation.
Retinitis can cause retinal detachment, hemorrhage, neuritis of the optic nerve, its atrophy and loss of vision. Many people are diagnosed with dacryocystitis. This disease, which inflames a tear sack. Perhaps inflammation of other lacrimal organs( glands or tubules).Acute dacryocystitis is manifested by the edema of the eyelid, the swelling of the skin, the closing of the eyelids, and even the complete closure of the eye gap.
Acute inflammation is favorable. Chronic dacryocystitis is dangerous for its complications( the formation of an ulcer and inflammation of the cornea).Dacryocystitis is very often diagnosed in newborn babies. Often develops dacryoadenitis( inflammation of the lacrimal glands).It is characterized by edema, tenderness and swelling of the upper eyelid on one eye. When inflammation of the lacrimal canals, strong lacrimation and separation of the purulent secretion are observed.
8 Examination and treatment tactic
Patients are treated after a thorough examination. Diagnosis is based on patient complaints, ophthalmoscopy results, biomicroscopy, various samples( tubular and instillation), visometry, perimetry, diaphanoscopy, angiography. Be sure to determine visual acuity from two sides. How to relieve inflammation of the eye, only an ophthalmologist knows.
You can remove eye inflammation at home, if there is no indication for hospitalization. The treatment regimen is determined by the underlying disease and the cause of its development. Treatment of retinitis involves the use of antibiotics( in the form of drops and solution for injection), corticosteroids. With viral etiology, antiviral agents are prescribed.
Treat the inflammation of the eye only after consulting a doctor. Self-treatment can do much harm. In addition, with retinitis, vitamins, antispasmodics, vasodilators are prescribed. A good effect gives electrophoresis. In detecting conjunctivitis, ophthalmic ointments are often used. They are indicated in the development of blepharitis against the background of inflammation of the conjunctiva.
Gentamicin or tetracycline ointment for eyes is used. Treatment of conjunctivitis includes washing the cavity in the conjunctive area with drugs. In severe cases, injections are given. Such patients should not be blindfolded. The treatment regimen includes Albucid drops. With virus etiology, Oftan-Ida, Acyclovir and Interferon are prescribed.
In chlamydial inflammation of the eyes, tetracyclines( Doxycycline) are prescribed. Not everyone knows how to treat inflammation of the eye by the type of iridocyclitis. In this situation, antiseptics( okostistin, Albucid), antibacterial agents( Oftakviks, Tobrex), antiviral drugs are shown. In severe cases, detoxification therapy is required. In addition, prescribe antihistamines, vitamins. Physiotherapy is often performed.
Acute dacryocystitis requires hospitalization. Antimicrobial drops, antiseptic solutions, systemic antibiotics are used. It is possible to use ointments. Dacryocystorhinostomy is used to improve the flow of tear fluid. With this inflammation of the eye, treatment may include opening an abscess. Thus, inflammatory diseases of the eye are very common among people of any age group.