1 Causes of pathology
Hemorrhage often results from a concussion of the eyeball and penetrating injuries that lead to a disruption in the integrity of vascular choroid or retinal walls. In addition, such a disease causes inflammation in the cavity of the uveal tract and the retina, glaucoma of hemorrhagic nature and retinopathy due to diabetes.
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Hemorrhage is possible with other organic pathologies, for example, with cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, hypertension, blood diseases. However, such a hemorrhage will take only a small portion of the vitreous.
2 Pathogenesis of the disease
The pathological process consists in impregnating the vitreous cavity with blood surpluses. Already on the third day there is a hemolysis, red blood cells are discolored due to the loss of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin in this case will be in a grain form. With phagocytic blood resorption, erythrocyte and hemoglobin absorption will occur. Hemosiderin in the case of hemoglobin decomposition has a toxic effect on the retina. Often, blood will form connective tissue - screeds that are soldered to the retina. In addition, degenerative pathological processes begin which are associated with impaired chemistry and the structure of the vitreous.
3 Symptomatic manifestations of
Visual acuity in this case is reduced, which leads to a specific light perception with an incorrect light projection. Hemophthalmic eyes can cause complete blindness. In the case of focal light or biomicroscopy, a dark brown blood mass is found behind the lens, which has a red tint. Structural vitreous elements can not be determined. Reflex of the bottom of the eye will be absent. When the blood dissolves, destructive changes appear, fibrils acquire thickenings, which have a grain surface, are covered with decay products and red blood cells. It is worth noting that the hemophthalmus differs from a partial hemorrhage, since the latter covers a small area and can independently dissolve.
4 Treatment actions
Hemoftalm requires mandatory hospitalization of the patient.
Treatment of the subtotal type can be carried out in a polyclinic. Therapy will depend on the factors of appearance. It should be noted that partial hemophthalmia therapy is practically the same as total treatment, however, the intensity level is less. Treatment, as a rule, lasts long enough. Partial hemophthalmia is practically not treated by surgical intervention.
In the case of a "fresh" hemophthalmus, bed rest with a bandage and cold is required for 2-3 hours in both eyes. To avoid another outpouring of blood, calcium-containing drugs are used, which are administered by intramuscular and local( in the form of eye drops) way. In addition, the intake of vitamins C, B2 and PP, dicinone and vikasol will be required. After a couple of days after the disease appeared, medications with a resolving action are prescribed. For this purpose, drops of potassium iodide, lidase or ronidase are used. To prevent tie formations, hormonal agents are used in the form of subconjunctival injections and eye drops. In addition, for this purpose, the introduction of parabulbar injections, which is carried out every other day. The course of treatment is 10 injections.
A subconjunctive administration of heparin and streptodecase solutions is recommended. In addition, this pathology provides for the use of a 10% solution of sodium iodide, which is introduced into the vein cavity. Good recommendations have autohemotherapeutic manipulations: injections of 2-4-6-8 ml of blood are injected by intramuscular injection, which is taken from the patient's vein.
Positive efficacy is also observed with the use of aloe extract, under the skin of lidase, the use of electrophoresis and fibrinolysin. It is recommended to perform ultrasound procedures: phonophoresis of potassium iodide, heparin, aloe, and laser therapy. If therapeutic manipulations are not effective within the first week, surgery is performed to remove blood from the eyeball.
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5 Folk therapy
Treatment with folk remedies is carried out only during the rehabilitation period, with the exception of leech therapy. Improvement of visual acuity is possible with the help of green tea. It is recommended to take 3 cups a day. In addition, it is allowed to wash the eyes, apply lotions and compresses from green tea. For lotions you need to brew 5 g of green tea 250 ml of boiling water, leave for a few minutes, then cool. In the tea, wadded disks are wetted, applied to the eyes. In addition, compresses help to remove redness and swelling.
Aloe vera juice can be used to improve visual acuity. Take should be 5 g after meals 3 times a day or as drops for the eyes. Effective and compresses from such a plant. To make a compress, mix 60 ml of aloe juice, 10 g of honey and 30 ml of water. Before preparing the mixture, it is necessary to hold the aloe leaves in the refrigerator for a week, then rinse, squeeze the juice and strain it.
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Self-medication can not be dealt with. If proper therapy is not available, excessive coats will form rough coats in the vitreous, which will lead to retinal detachment and atrophic changes in the eyeball, accompanied by impaired visual system in the affected eye.
The prognosis in relation to visual acuity in case of partial hemorrhage is mainly favorable. The hemorrhage will be eliminated, and the vision restored. With subtotal or total hemophthalmos, the prognosis is unfavorable.