Border nevus is a small nodule located on the body, with a color ranging from gray to black. This is one of those few neoplasms localized anywhere. It is often single.
The border pigment nevus consists of a large number of cells that contain a large amount of melanin. At a certain time, he did not go out, but stopped between the dermis and the epidermis.
The concept of a border nevus
Birthmarks are acquired or congenital. This is a benign neoplasm that appears in people of both sexes.
A spot is found in childhood or adolescence, localized on the feet or on the palms, genitals. The peculiarity of this subtype is that it belongs to melanoma-dangerous ones, since under certain factors it can be transformed into melanoma.
Clinical signs and causes
The diameter of the lesion is always less than 1 cm. The nevus has a smooth, dry surface on which hair never grows. Sometimes the stain is round in shape or irregular. Nevus are prone to growth, then for a year the increase is an average of 1 mm.
This type of neoplasm sometimes has a gradual increase in pigmentation from the middle to the edges of the formation. A variant is the cockade nevus, which acquires the features of the rings. They differ in the saturation of their color.
Photo of border pigment nevus
The border nevus is usually congenital. His education falls on the 10-25th week of intrauterine development.
The cause is a violation in the formation of melanoblasts. If it is deep, then education is manifested in the first months of the child's life.
During adolescent growth, it is noted that the nevus grows faster, which is associated with hormonal reorganization. Many people with an identified melanoma say that it developed very long from the pigment nevus, which was not the cause of the inconvenience.
Before a dermatologist or an oncologist, the first task is to differentiate the disease from cavernous hematomas. They are softer and have a greasy, uneven surface.
Dermatological examination and dermatoscopy are performed. The latter method is carried out using special devices that allow you to conduct a visual assessment of education using methods of multiple magnification.
Dermatoscopy is aimed at studying the structure and color of the nevus. It allows you to estimate the edges, sizes, asymmetry and dynamics of changes. Such a study does not take much time and is the main one in determining the neoplasms' oncology safety.
An additional method of investigation is a skiascopy. This is a hardware spectrophotometric spot scan. With its help is studied in more detail:
- outer structure,
- features of melanin distribution.
This diagnostic method allows you to determine the onset of melanoma formation with an accuracy of 97%
This method allows you to separate the borderline pigment nevus from:
- blue nevus.
Treatment of borderline pigment nevus
Those who have had a similar disease should be observed regularly with a dermatologist. While the neoplasm is safe, it is not removed.
Any injury can lead to the doctor offering to remove such a birthmark, because it refers to melanoma.
Often the indication is also the location of the nevus on the palms and soles, that is, in places where the risk of disrupting the structure of the mole is increased.
Unlike many other nevi, this species is rarely removed by electrocoagulation and nitrogen, since such methods can cause tissue injury. And this will lead to the development of cancer.
Therefore, it is often suggested to remove using:
- radio wave,
The latter method is used only if the neoplasm is guaranteed to be benign and does not require histology.
Radiosurgical knife is effective only when the formation does not exceed 0.5 cm. If signs of malignant transformation are detected, the patient is immediately sent for removal using a surgical technique.
After the impact of traces from the procedure does not remain, but sometimes it is possible to repeat the development of the disease, which appear for a short period.
It is necessary to know that with the appearance of porosity, pain, scaling, lymphatic fluid, consultation and treatment are compulsory.
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