Nematodes - round worms - the most common class of parasites. In nature, according to some sources, there are up to one million subspecies of such helminths. There are worms, for which the "master" is animals, fish and people. Dangerous invasions can provoke about 45 subspecies. For man a threat is represented by roundworms, pinworms and trichinella. The signs of their presence can be hidden and obvious.
Symptoms of nematodes in humans are directly related to the stage of development of infestation. In the early stages of the migration of larvae, the signs of nematodes are difficult to recognize. And all because they penetrate into the bloodstream, spread throughout the body and affect almost all internal organs. There were cases when the larvae settled in the liver, in the heart, and even in the lungs. That is why at the initial stage of the invasion symptoms of pulmonary and cardiac insufficiency, signs of liver disease may appear.
Intestinal helminthiases can show recognizable characteristic symptoms. Since adult nematodes for normal functioning are attached to the walls of the intestine, they damage it. Violation of the integrity of the mucous layer leads to the development of inflammatory reactions. That is why pains appearing in the peritoneal area, upset of the stool, nausea and vomiting become possible. Further life activity of adult nematodes leads to the appearance of symptoms of general intoxication of the body and signs of a nervous breakdown. That's why little ones sleep badly, quickly get tired, constantly fuss.
Damage to the intestinal wall often causes blockage of small physiological holes. If the bile ducts overlap, symptoms of gallbladder disease appear. The patient may complain of pain that appears in the right side of the peritoneum, the appearance of signs of fever. Urine in this case is red, and the feces discolor. Early diagnosis helps prevent dangerous complications.
There are also characteristic features of nematodes for individual subspecies. So, for example, if a man has a pinworm, the itching appears in the anus. It intensifies at night, when an adult goes out from the anus to lay eggs. She fixes them on a delicate skin around the anus. Adhesive composition and calls irritating effect. If a similar symptom is attached to the night gnashing of teeth, you can accurately suspect enterobiasis.
Trichinosis is manifested by other signs. Since these nematodes mostly affect muscular musculature, when the invasion develops the patient complains of severe muscle pains, the appearance of severe eye swelling. Ascariasis is another helminth disease that often occurs in an adult and in a child. Symptoms of it do not appear immediately. This is because this helminthiasis begins with the migration of the larvae. Signs of this stage are manifested only when they, together with the blood and lymph flow, enter virtually all the systems of the body, damage the tissues of the lungs, liver, and heart, and form processes that lead to general intoxication of the body. The products of vital activity of nematodes provoke allergies or bronchial asthma. The combination of these two symptoms is a characteristic sign of the presence of roundworms and an occasion to make an appointment with a parasitologist. To determine the causative agent of infestation and to establish a more accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct all necessary studies. Chronic stages of ascaridosis have signs of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. If they occur against a background of rapid fatigue, memory loss, hysterical seizures, a significant decrease in appetite, it is worth immediately seeking help from specialists.
Diagnosis of nematodes
It is possible to diagnose the presence of nematodes and signs of their vital activity by conducting some laboratory tests. The patient will be offered three times to pass the feces, to make a general blood test. With ascariasis, sputum analysis should be performed and lung X-rays should be performed. If suspicions of trichinosis, doctors will necessarily hold a biopsy - a procedure that allows you to obtain a piece of muscle tissue for the analysis of nematodes. Morphological research will also be useful. Urinalysis for suspicion of the presence of nematodes is not performed.