Disease, very common among the male half. Like all other cancers, adenocarcinoma may have a chance of successful treatment only with early detection.
Also to men, especially the elderly, it is necessary to remember that adherence to healthy norms of behavior, proper selection of a diet helps to support men's health.
Concept and statistics
Oncological prostate formation is a group of different types of cancer. The lion's share, namely 90% of all cases of tumors of the malignant nature of the prostate falls on a species called adenocarcinoma.
Disease after lung cancer and skin oncology is in third place in terms of distribution among males. Depending on how fast a tumor is detected, the disease on average reduces the life expectancy of patients by ten years.
Types of adenocarcinoma of the prostate
The method of biopsy makes a sampling material for the investigation of tumor malignancy.
This analysis also determines what type of cancer the patient has. For histological examinat
ion, in addition to biopsy samples, tumors removed by surgery are used.
The degree of differentiation of the cells gives information how aggressive the formation into which they enter.
Normal cells are modified, mutated and thus regenerated into oncological structures.
The more the cell passes depersonalization, loses recognition, the more aggressive the oncological tumor. This figure in numerical terms is determined by the Gleason scale.
According to this principle, adenocarcinoma is classified:
- The highly differentiated tumor - the cells have changed to a small extent. Such a pathology has a favorable prognosis if the problem is diagnosed in time and treatment is started. Education develops at a low rate. The Gleason score defines this type of tumors by differentiation for 1 ÷ 5 points. Pathological formations with high cell differentiation are divided into types:
- Dark-cell adenocarcinoma - during the histological examination a special dye is added for testing. Cells of this type absorb the substance well and become dark in color.
- The clear cell adenocarcinoma and of the prostate are the same, but the tumor cells perceive the coloring agent to a small extent, so they differ from the normal cells in a lighter shade.
- Adenocarcinoma moderately differentiated - is in second place in frequency of occurrence. This type of pathology, too, can have a good prognosis with timely measures to provide medical care. Gleason's scale determines the degree of cell differentiation within 5 ÷ 7 balls. A mildly differentiated tumor usually occurs in the posterior region of the gland. The presence of pathology raises the level of PSA in the blood. With finger diagnosis, this type of tumor can be detected.
- Fine-acinar prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common among all types of adenocarcinomas. Pathology can appear at one time in several places. Then these islands form a large tumor. Education can not cause problems with urination. Pathological cells are able to produce mucin. When a patient develops a tumor of this type at the last stage of development, painful sensations may appear in the spine and rectum.
- Cells with a low degree of differentiation characterize pathology as the most aggressive tumor. The Gleason scale, such a level of cell differentiation, expresses scores in the range of 8 ÷ 10. This means that the cells completely lost the signs of those tissues from which they originated. Education has properties:
- rapidly spreads to nearby tissues,
- the body of the tumor has a lamellar structure,
- is able to rapidly give metastases.
Causes of development of
Factors that directly affect the fact that adenocarcinoma will begin to form in the prostate gland are unknown.
But there are regularities, phenomena that occur most often when this pathology is detected.
- Hormonal rearrangements that occur in the male body with age.
- If an XMRV virus is detected.
- Working with cadmium.
- Genetic predisposition, it can be inferred if relatives had such diseases.
- Disbalance of the balance required for the nutrition of cells of substances.
At an early stage the disease may not manifest itself. Many of the symptoms are not characteristic only of adenocarcinoma. You should pay attention to the bells, so as not to miss the onset of the disease.
Problem can cause:
- Difficulty urinating:
- weak jet with bladder emptying,
- frequent desires,
- emptying not in full volume,
- painful sensation when urinating,
- frequent urge to empty the bladder not only during the day, but also amongnight.
- In the later stages of the development of pain pathology in the field:
- of the sacrum,
- in the lower abdomen,
- of the waist,
- of the anus.
Degrees and stages of
An important indicator of the characteristics of an existing prostate tumor is the stage of its development. It is customary to classify this attribute by four points.
- The first stage of is when the tumor is very small. It is not determined by any other method, except for biopsy. However, for carrying out this survey, there are no obvious signs that would serve as an excuse. Therefore at this stage the problem is rarely found.
- The second stage is when the formation hit a part of the prostate, but the malignant tumor did not go beyond the body. At this stage, pathology is determined by different methods of diagnosis.
- The third stage - at this stage the formation begins to spread to the nearest tissues outside the prostate. Perhaps, the defeat of the nearest lymph nodes.
- The fourth stage is the active spread of pathology in the body, near and distant metastases.
To determine the presence of a tumor, the degree of its malignancy, the stage of development, a specialist appoints a complex of several diagnostic measures.
This may be:
- PSA measurement in the blood,
- material sampling( biopsy) for histological examination,
- finger examination,
- transrectal echography,
- magnetic resonance imaging,
- ultrasound examination,
- x-ray of pelvic region.
Treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate
What methods are suitable for creating an assistance program in each case, the specialist decides. The choice of activities depends on the degree of development of the problem, the age and general condition of the patient, the type of tumor.
In the later stages, if the removal of the pathology is no longer possible, other procedures support the patient's condition, as long as there is an opportunity to prolong life.
- Hormone therapy - prescribe drugs that can lower testosterone levels.
- Radiation therapy - ionizing radiation, which affects destructively on cancer cells.
- Cryotherapy - impact on pathology by low temperatures.
- Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy. Radioactive iodine is introduced into the tumor, so it is possible to work on the malignant cells from the inside, using increased doses of carrier activity.
- Ablation of adenocarcinoma is the destruction of pathological cells by high-intensity ultrasound.
A properly formulated diet can be a preventive measure or even reduce the prerequisites for the development of an already occurring adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
Whether treatment with prostate adenocarcinoma will be successful depends on whether the problem was discovered in the early stages. If the tumor is treated in time, it is possible to overcome the disease and maintain a normal quality of life.
A number of simple rules can be classified as warning measures.
Create healthy habits that will increase the body's immunity and the degree of its resistance to diseases:
- Give the body every possible physical load.
- Practicing walking in the fresh air.
- Make a diet with recommendations of oncologists. Specialists have decided on products that cause prostate cancer( large amounts of animal fat, increased caloric content, etc.).
- Men after forty-five years must undergo an urological examination every year for the purpose of prevention. The same applies to men who have relatives with oncology of the prostate.
If a virus is found that can initiate a malignant tumor, you should also undergo specialist examinations and follow preventive measures.
How prostate biopsy is performed, you can visually see in this video: