Cancer of the uterine neck or cervical cancer is usually called a malignant tumor process that forms in the tissues of the cervix. Similar oncology refers to the group most common among varieties of cancer of the reproductive system.
What is squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix?
Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is called a malignant tumor, formed from epithelial tissue covering the outer layer of the uterine neck.
The uterine neck looks like a bottle neck and is located in the back of the vaginal part.
In fact, the cervix is the connecting part necessary for the fulfillment of conception, and then the natural birth of the child.
The cervix is covered with an epithelial layer with a multi-core non-corrugating planar structure. This layer is necessary for performing protective functions to protect the uterus from external unfavorable and aggressive factors.
If the adverse effect is on an ongoing basis, then it is from this layer that malignant tumor tumors begin to form. A similar picture takes place in more than 8 out of 10 cases.
According to statistical data, for 100 thousand units of female population accounts for about 15 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the neck of .
What does it come from?
There are many specific factors that can provoke an oncology process in the cervical canal:
- Papillomavirus, which is most often transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse;
- Nicotine addiction also contributes to the development of cancerous structures of carcinogenic malignancy, and the number of cigarettes that a woman smokes during the day is of no small importance. The more nicotine enters the body, the higher the likelihood of squamous cell carcinoma;
- Decreased immune status and factors leading to it. Insufficient immune protection also increases the likelihood of oncology. One can also include deliberate suppression of immunity, for example, after organ transplantation operations. AIDS also leads to pathologically low immune status, therefore it is a provoking factor of uterine cervical cancer.
Oncologists have long studied a lot of cancer patients, which allowed to identify some groups of risk of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
The maximum likelihood of developing cervical oncology is observed when two factors( or more) occur simultaneously.
In addition to the above factors, this includes:
- Early onset of regular sexual relations. If a girl's sexual life began before the age of 18, the risk of cancer increases;
- A large number of sexual partners , more than 5 during the year. This factor is directly related to the woman's spouse. If he on the side has a large number of unprotected sexual relations, then the spouse risks getting cancer of the uterine neck;
- Human papillomavirus 18 and 16 types;
- Non-observance of sexual intimate hygiene by the sexual partner and the woman herself. Fumigious under the flesh has a carcinogenic effect on the epithelial layer of the cervix. She enters the vagina during sexual intercourse, which causes the risk of oncology to increase significantly;
- Presence of background and background formations of in the cervical channel like leukoplakia, erythroplasty, polyps or dysplasia;
- Chronic forms of uterine neck pathologies like cervicitis, condyloma, pseuderosion or true erosion.
In addition, such pathological conditions as genital herpes virus, chlamydia, cytomegalovirus infectious process, immunodeficiency virus, etc., also increase the risk of cervical cancer.
Also experts consider age characteristics( over 40) as probable factors of development of oncoprocesses in the tissues of the uterine neck,unhealthy diet with a lack of fruit and vegetable dishes, deficiency of ascorbic acid and retinol, obesity, long-term intake of oral contraceptives, frequent surgical interruptionpregnancy, multiple births, etc.
Cervical oncology is classified according to several principles.
There are two main forms of cervical oncology: microinvasive and invasive.
Microinvasive cancer of the uterine neck can penetrate the blood and lymphatic system.
Invasive form is common in cancer patients of 50 years of age. Such a tumor can be characterized by infiltrative or polypoid growth.
According to the degree of differentiation of cellular structures, the following are distinguished:
- Undifferentiated or low-differentiated;
- Thorny cervical cancer.
Ploskokletochnaya oncology can develop in various forms. Sometimes cancer cell structures are formed into cancer pearls - small formations of a rounded shape.
Squamous nonkeratinized cervical cancer is distinguished by a polyhedral or oval structure with granular cytoplasm.
This oncoform is divided into highly differentiated, low-grade or moderately differentiated cancers.
Only a highly differentiated form of nonkeratinized carcinoma positively responds to the therapeutic effect. The remaining forms of squamous nonkeratinized cervical cancer have a less positive prognosis.
As a matter of fact, the squamous non-corroborating cancerous form is an intermediate stage of the development of cervical carcinoma, therefore it has a rather rich spectrum of various manifestations.
A squamous, squamous form of cervical cancer is rare in 5% of all clinical cases of cervical cancer.
A feature of such oncoforming is its ability to form cornified foci, called cancer pearls.
If the keratinized form was detected and correctly diagnosed at the initial stage of formation, then the predictions for cure will be most favorable.
Occurs among oncologies of similar localization and a low-grade or undifferentiated form of a cancerous tumor in the cervix, which is characterized by the inability to obtain data on the source of oncogenesis growth.
This kind of cervical cancer is considered the most aggressive.
The onset of the tumor process is asymptomatic, however, with its development and increase in the volume of education, the clinical picture becomes brighter.
- Patients report the appearance of abnormal vaginal discharge between menstruation. Usually, such excretions are distinguished by a watery structure with different variants of blood admixtures, i.e., it can be slightly pinkish tint, and meat dishes can be observed. The smell can also be absent or malodorous. The volume of discharge also varies from minor to abundant.
- Pain symptomatology in the pelvis and in the lower abdomen. If in the initial stages of pain the pain is disturbed at times, then in the late stages of pain manifestations are characterized by characteristic constancy.
- Puffiness of the perineum, legs or external genitalia. Similar manifestations are most typical in the late stages of the oncology process and arise as the cancer cells are metastasized to the lymphatic system in cases of lymphatic disturbances.
- Asthenic manifestations of like chronic fatigue, drowsiness, slimming, weakness, minor hyperthermia, anemia, etc.
The development of malignant lesions on the cervix differs in a certain stagia:
- Stage 0 is characterized by a superficial location of abnormal oncocells, when the tumor is still absent, and there is no penetration deep into the tissues. A similar stage is called oncologists cervical intraepithelial neoplasia;
- At the first stage, the cellular structures of the cancer begin to expand and form into a tumor that grows deep into the neck tissues. Outside the cervical canal, the tumor process does not go out and does not extend to the lymphatic system and lymph nodes. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination of the smear from the cervix and colposcopic examination;
- In 2 stages, the tumor processes from the cervix sprout into the uterine body and spread beyond it, however, the lower vaginal areas and the walls of the low-tidal region are not yet affected by cancer;
- The 3 stages of cervical cancer tend to spread to the lower vaginal zones and low-tidal walls, sometimes close lymph nodes are affected, urinary processes are disturbed, but there is no distant metastasis. The tumor can be quite large;
- In 4 stages, tumor processes are characterized by large-scale prevalence, and the tumor focus itself reaches considerable dimensions. Lesions are observed in lymph nodes, distant organic structures and nearby organs.
The diagnostic process is based on the following:
- Gynecological examination;
- Cytology, Pap test;
- Histological study of biomaterial taken from the cervical canal;
- ultrasound of the low-dose zone;
- MRI or CT, etc.
Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in the cervix of the
If a stage 0 oncology process is detected and the woman plans future maternity, then a sparing surgery is carried out, involving the removal of the affected areas of the cervical canal.
If oncoforming has developed to more severe stages, then uterine extirpation is indicated.
Photo of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix
If the tumor processes have spread to the vaginal cavity, then radical hysterectomy is used, involving the removal of the uterine body and neck, parts of the vagina, lymph nodes and appendages, fallopian tubes.
The operation is often combined with irradiation or chemotherapeutic treatment, conducted before the intervention and in the post-operation period.
The absence of treatment inevitably leads to death of the patient during the first five-year plan.
Videoconference on radical trachellectomy for cervical cancer: