A feature of one of the most basic types of helminthiosis is that there are practically no signs of infection with opisthorchiasis throughout the incubation period, which lasts up to a month. One of the reasons for the absence of signs of the disease is the small size of the liver trematode, as the parasite is called, which in length does not exceed five centimeters, and width is 1.5-2 cm. The first signs of opisthorchiasis in humans are often confused with common stomach disorder or onset of acute respiratory disease. Therefore, they begin treatment with the use of folk remedies and drugs that normalize the digestive tract.
Another reason for the slow response of the body to helminthic invasion are the features of the body structure of the larva. Covered with a special shell, they get into the human body, gradually get rid of their protection. Then the megacercaria freely enter the bloodstream, spreading throughout the body. And only then begins manifestations of opisthorchiasis, which become more pronounced as the number of parasites increases, and the severity of the course of helminthic invasion.
Signs of opisthorchiasis in adults
How opisthorchiasis manifests in adults depends on the shape and severity of the course of the disease. The first signs of opisthorchia in an adult after the end of the incubation period are an increase in temperature to 38-39.5 ° C and catarrhal symptoms of the upper respiratory tract. After some time( from two to four weeks), the human condition stabilizes and this indicates the transition of helminthiasis to the chronic stage.
The main symptoms in a person in the acute stage of opisthorchiasis are:
- allergic reactions;
- dyspeptic phenomena and lesions of the gastrointestinal tract;
- is an asthenovegetative syndrome;
- liver and pancreas in enlarged sizes;
- aches in joints, muscles, non-permanent pain;
- inflammation of the respiratory system;
- enlarged lymph nodes and spleen.
In addition, the symptoms of the disease in an adult in the initial acute phase may be:
- elevated temperature;
- abdominal pain;
- nausea and the urge to vomit.
Of course, all these symptoms of opisthorchiasis in adults can be of different degrees of severity and depend on which particular organ succumbed to the "attack" of parasites. With a typhoid-like variant, the adult will have:
- High body temperature with a pronounced feverish state, with a sharp rise in it, almost to forty degrees.
- Lymph nodes that increase dramatically in volume.
- General weakness of the body with severe pain in the joints and muscles.
In addition, among the signs of opisthorchiasis typhoid-like forms in adults, such allergic manifestations as dyspepsia, cough, severe headaches are often diagnosed, and on the electrocardiogram diffuse changes of the myocardium are noted. Symptoms in the hepatocholangitis variant of helminthiosis include the symptomatology of diffuse liver damage, and is characterized by functional disorders. In this case, cholangiocholecystitis is accompanied by abdominal pain, sometimes like a hepatic colic. In case of severe course of the disease, the signs characteristic of hepatobiliary pathology are accompanied by symptoms of pancreatitis with shingles and indigestion.
Symptoms of opisthorchiasis in adults with a primary lesion of the digestive tract are expressed in the form of severe pain in the epigastric region. Clinical symptoms in the gastroenterological variant of helminthiosis correspond to such diseases as erosive( catarrhal) gastritis, enterocolitis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. The signs of intoxication and fever are less pronounced than in other forms of invasion. With the predominant airway damage by parasites, which are noted in a third of all patients, the following symptoms of opisthorchia are noted:
- asthenovegetative syndrome;
- inflammation of the respiratory tract;
- development of asthmatic bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy.
In the absence of therapy, helminthiosis from the acute form goes into a chronic stage. Symptoms of opisthorchiasis correspond to chronic inflammations of the liver, gall bladder and stomach. Signs of opisthorchiasis in an adult person corresponding to the symptoms of these diseases will be:
- rejection of fatty foods;
- pain in the upper abdomen;
- dryness and bitterness in the mouth.
Signs of opisthorchiasis( in the photo) in adults can also have severe allergic reactions with changes in skin integument( urticaria, pinpoint eruptions).In addition, in severe cases, developing Quincke's edema, which in some cases causes an obstruction of the airways and a lethal outcome. Specifically, which symptoms will be in the chronic stage, depend on where exactly the greatest accumulation of parasites and the severity of helminthic invasion is noted. In some people, helminthiasis reveals itself only as a symptom of cholangitis and cholecystitis; in others, the symptoms of infection with opisthorchiasis are signs of a deficiency in digestive enzymes, and in a fairly large group of adults, the symptoms of infection are general toxic and allergic reactions. With prolonged course of pathology, the condition is complicated by a depressed state, a feeling of constant anxiety, hypochondria.
Symptoms of opisthorchiasis in men and women
In women, symptoms of opisthorchia may include shifts in the menstrual cycle, increased soreness during menstruation. In men, the symptoms are more often expressed in signs of a lesion of the digestive tract, and for women the symptomatology corresponding to the lesions of the hepatobiliary system is more pronounced.
How opisthorchiasis manifests in an adult, depends largely on the state of his immune system. Weakened immunity creates favorable conditions for the development of infections with bile congestion caused by parasitic worms. One of the main manifestations of opisthorchiasis is the temperature. Almost half of patients in the acute phase, febrile events occur with a gradual increase in body temperature to 39.5 ° C.
The relationship between opisthorchiasis and hair loss in adults is based on the fact that the condition of the hair is directly related to the nerves. And among the symptoms of helminthiasis there are signs of a defeat of the vegetative and central nervous system. Opisthorchiasis with diarrhea is often noted with lesions of the gastroenterocolitis type. In some people, the pressure increases with opisthorchiasis, which is the body's immune response to invasion. Violations of the autonomic nervous system manifests itself in the pricking of the fingers in the opisthorchiasis, and also the release from invasion does not mean that the complete restoration of the pathological changes of the immune and hepatobiliary systems, from the gastrointestinal tract and microcirculation occurred.
After treatment of opisthorchiasis, symptoms that indicate functional and organic disorders in the work of organs caused by parasitic effects. Proceeding from this, several stages are envisaged in the treatment technique and after rehabilitation of the parasites, rehabilitation measures are necessarily provided from the body. Such therapy is carried out individually, taking into account the remaining pathology.
Pain in opisthorchiasis
Regardless of the form in which helminthiasis occurs in an adult, the pain associated with opisthorchiasis is a constant sign. The leading pathology caused by parasites is the defeat of the pancreas. In this case, in the right hypochondrium, pressing pains are felt that fall under the scapula to the right or to the right collarbone. With opisthorchiasis, the headache indicates a disturbance in the central nervous system. Strong headaches, arthralgia, myalgia most clearly reflect the course of infestation in a typhoid-like form. Over time, symptoms of pancreatitis appear with chronic pain in the chronic form of helminthic invasion, with pain of an enveloping nature radiating into the thorax from either side or shoulder.
When pressing on the base of the sternoclavicular muscle on the right, there is a lot of pain, which indicates a lesion of the bile ducts. With hepatic failure, pain gives in the right hypochondrium during palpation due to an increase in the liver and dyskinesia of bile ducts. Blockage by parasites of the pancreatic ducts and liver ducts causes pain of varying intensity, which does not depend on food intake. Often, patients complain of pain in the heart that are associated with dystrophic changes in the myocardium.
The basis of the acute phase of helminthiasis in adults is allergic reactions. When parasite toxins get into the body, they interact with the cells of the immune system and trigger the release mechanism of biologically active substances. Going to the skin, joints, heart, lungs, other organs and systems, they cause allergic reactions. At the initial stage in the phase of the acute course of the disease, penetrating into the joints, opisthores cause painful sensations. Pain in the joints with opisthorchiasis is associated not only with their direct damage, but also with the feverish condition of the patient.
With the penetration of parasites into the respiratory system, the bronchopulmonary form develops and a cough characteristic of the opisthorchiasis occurs. This is due to the irritating effect of parasites and their allergic effects.