The SA72-4 antigen was first described in the study of breast cancer. Like most other cancer markers, it is found in the blood of an adult in small quantities.
Increased concentration is synthesized in the fetal tissues, especially at the time of GIT formation. The analysis makes it possible to identify cancer problems at the early stages of their formation, which means timely treatment.
What the SA 72-4
Cancer Marker stands for and indicates. The oncomarker is a proteinaceous cell connected to a carbohydrate. They are on the surface of the epithelium. This species is produced in large quantities in cancer processes occurring in the gastrointestinal tract.
In some situations, elevated rates are noted for cancer of the respiratory tract, ovaries, benign tumors. This makes diagnosis difficult.
With signs of the presence of cancer cells, studies are also being performed on other markers, for example, CA 125, CA 19-9, CEA.
This allows you to make an accurate diagnosis. If the recurrent tu
mor gives a value of 78%, then additional CEA increases the reliability to 87%.
If surgical intervention was successful, then the oncomarker will return to normal within 1-2 months. He also helps to predict the further course of the disease. The higher the level of protein remains, the worse for the patient is the prognosis.
Indications for analysis
Assigns an analysis when symptoms of gastric or intestinal cancer appear. Main signs:
- regular vomiting and nausea, the first resembles a coffee grounds,
- aversion to meat,
- impossibility of the stomach to fully exercise its functions,
- marked increase in abdominal volume,
- black and liquid stool.
Indications can be suspected of cancer of the cervix, lungs and pancreas.
Note that the oncomarker has a high sensitivity for stomach cancer, but normal indications in the presence of other symptoms are not 100% guarantee of its absence.
The appointment is issued by the doctor and to determine the presence of metastases or relapses. If the accuracy with oncology of the stomach is 90%, then in determining the metastasis, it decreases to 70%.
One-time analysis, even with a positive result, will not indicate an oncological disease.
Specificity of diagnostics on oncomarker assumes regular repeated carrying out of analyzes, observation of dynamics.
A study is performed in the complex diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors, with questionable results of other oncomarkers, for monitoring the course of the disease.
How to properly take a blood test for the cancer marker CA 72-4?
The analysis is taken from the vein. To get a more accurate picture, it should be taken in the morning, preferably before 11 am, on an empty stomach. If you can not tolerate hunger for 8 hours allowed to drink small amounts of water. It should be without gas.
Three days before the diagnosis it is worth to give up alcohol, do not increase physical activity and do not eat fatty foods. On the day of the test, you should not smoke or take medicine.
Measurement of serum content of the marker in combination with other methods of investigation makes it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Results are ready in one or two days.
In order to obtain reliable information for the purpose of monitoring, it is recommended to undergo a survey in the same laboratory. The use of different test systems, thresholds of sensitivity may cause erroneous interpretation of the results.
The amount of CA 72-4 in the amount of less than 6.9 units / ml is considered normal.low rates indicate:
- positive dynamics during therapy,
- lack of cancer,
- development of the disease at the initial stage.
Doctors note that a single increase is not a sign of a tumor. It is necessary to repeat the study for observation in dynamics.
An oncological diagnosis is made only on the basis of histological analysis.
Reasons for increasing
High rates are noted with:
- stomach cancer,
- formations in the large intestine,
- mucinous ovarian tumors,
- lung cancer.
Oncology uses a dynamic study of the level of cancer antigen. To do this, we study the rate of decrease or increase in plasma concentration. This makes it possible to evaluate the quality of treatment and to carry out corrective therapy.
Although this antigen is a specific marker, its analysis should be supplemented by the appointment of ultrasound and FGDs.
Causes of deviation from normal values can be associated with other pathologies: benign gastrointestinal diseases, cirrhosis of the liver, chronic bronchitis, cystic diseases, GERD, pancreatitis.
The lack of protein is also not a guarantee of the absence of malignant formations. Therefore, the oncomarker is often only part of a comprehensive diagnosis.
The danger of the latter is that they often have a latent period, when no external manifestation occurs. The analysis allows to suspect their appearance even before the appearance of a clinical picture.