The adenoma of the salivary gland is a benign formation that develops in the glandular epithelium.
The most common tumors on the parotid gland. The formation occurs in a single quantity, but sometimes several tumors appear at once. They occur in men and women, but the latter are more likely to get sick.
In general, the tumor is formed in people older than 50 years, but after 70 years the disease is less common. Benign neoplasm has clear boundaries, capsule. The thickness of the latter can be different. More often the tumor is of the right round shape or oval. Adenoma is dense, its shade may be different. Large foci are accompanied by hemorrhage or tissue necrosis. On both sides of the tumor appears rarely.
The causes of adenoma of the salivary gland
The causes of tumors have not been clarified to this day. Scientists say that there is a connection with previous traumas or inflammatory processes. But in the history of diseases, these factors are not always present.
There are reports that the risk of a benign tumor is higher in people who do not get enough vitamins, eat foods with a high cholesterol content.
Several forms are distinguished:
- polymorphic( pleomorphic),
- basal cell,
On the photo pleomorphic adenoma of the right parotid salivary gland
- Pleiomorphic tumor grows slowly, but can reach up to large sizes. More often has a tuberous structure. Occurs in the parotid gland. In the latter stages, the risk of malignancy of the tumor increases.
- Basal cell may be multiple. Represents a small node. It differs in a dense but homogeneous structure. This form usually does not recur, sometimes it is prone to malignant transformation.
- Canalical. Contains prismatic epithelial cells that assemble into thin bead-like beads. Usually occurs in people aged 60-65 years. It affects the upper lip, the inner side of the cheek. Symptoms of the disease does not arise.
- Greater adenoma. Can be any shape and size. The tumor appears in the parotid, cheek area, submandibular zone. Development proceeds painlessly. Adenoma does not lead to relapse after treatment.
- Adenolymph. Inside the lymph. It grows slowly. More often found in older men. At first the growth is invisible. Education is clear, has an elastic or dense structure.
- Monoform. Similar to the previous version, but does not contain mesenchymal tissues. It consists of large cells. Usually has a light tint.
- Adenococcioma. Malignant tumors occur in large and small salivary glands. The outlook for this form is unfavorable.
Symptoms of formation
The most popular is polymorphic tumor. It has been growing for several years, but it does not cause pain, does not lead to paresis of the facial nerve.
If the adenoma affects the facial nerve, paralysis occurs. Over time, the entire nerve can become involved in the inflammatory process. Paralysis causes pain, which can have different intensity. These symptoms mainly appear if the cells begin to change to malignant.
In certain locations, patients complain of:
- speech disorder,
- of ear pain, neck,
Diagnosis is made when using a complex of clinical and instrumental studies. At the first reception, data is collected. Special attention is paid to the localization, consistency, size and contours of the tumor.
In order to reveal the nature of the tumor is carried out:
- craniography of the skull,
- of the ultrasound of the salivary glands.
Determine the nature of education allows puncture, biopsy, cytological examination of the smear. If the adenoma develops into a cancer, then a computed tomography of the salivary glands is assigned, a study of the lymphatic system.
Removal of adenoma of the salivary gland
Surgical treatment is always prescribed. The adenoma is easily removed with the capsule. Since the formation does not germinate in the tissue, all manipulations take several minutes.
The only complication that can occur is damage to the facial nerve. Consequences of manipulation can be paresis or paralysis of facial muscles, the formation of fistulas.
Video shows the process of removal of pleomorphic adenoma of submandibular salivary gland: