Severe withdrawal syndrome( in the people simply "breaking") - is an integral part of any drug independence. Every drug addict, regardless of the type of prohibited drugs that he takes, experienced a painful condition when he missed the next dose. One of the most terrible and intolerable is heroin withdrawal. It can last up to 2-3 weeks, and residual effects are several months. A full treatment of heroin abstinence is possible only in a medical clinic.
Officially, heroin withdrawal is called abstinence syndrome in drug addiction. This is a complex of somatic and mental disorders that arise when the body suddenly does not receive a dose of poison, which is already thoroughly "hooked".
The timing and severity of the breaking depends on a variety of factors. This is the age and health status of the patient himself, his addiction experience, the dose of heroin, the method of administration, etc.
Russian narcologists distinguish 4 consecutive stages of heroin withdrawal:
- First. It starts 8-12 hours after taking drugs, many people feel its approach in advance, according to certain signs( both mental and physical).
- The second. Systematically flows from the first about a day( 30-36 hours from the last heroin dose).
- Third. It is counted in 40-48 hours from the last heroin injection( or other method of reception).
- Fourth. The final stage begins on the third day and lasts 5-15 days. In most addicts, the symptoms begin to subside on the 5th day, and after 8 days a person feels relatively healthy.
To understand the causes of narcotic withdrawal from this substance, it is important to understand how heroin works and what changes in the human body.
The narcotic effect of heroin is based on the action of opiates - the main alkaloid opium, to which the drug belongs. Opiates are very similar in structure to the "pleasure hormones" of endorphins. But endorphins work very subtly and choose for their hormonal attack special groups of receptors.
Opiates do not care - they hit right away at all the μ-opioid receptors that are in the brain and spinal cord, as well as in the intestines. Alkaloid molecules act as a powerful anesthetic and anti-anxiety agent. That is, relieve pain, anxiety and any discomfort. Over time, the number of opioid receptors decreases, the synthesis of "native" endorphins decreases, and the remaining receptors noticeably lose sensitivity. And when the addict's body does not receive the next dose of heroin, which stimulates the activity of receptors, its own analgesic system, accustomed to support from the outside, is completely or partially disconnected.
Symptoms and severity of heroin abstinence increase with the transition of one stage of breaking into another. On average, withdrawal begins 10 hours after the last dose of the drug, but those people who have already experienced heroin withdrawal may feel its early arrival in advance. Increases irritability, sharply jumps mood, there is incomprehensible internal discomfort, you want to run somewhere, from someone to hide.
The first phase of withdrawal begins as a classic seasonal flu:
- dilated pupils;
- the patient constantly sneezes and coughs;
- there is a runny nose, tears flow from the eyes;
- there is a piloedection - goosebump;The
- person is tense, irritable, having sleep disorders.
During the second stage, all these symptoms only increase, new ones are added: the
- of the patient beats in a fever, the chills are replaced by fever;
- person sweats profusely, feels incredible weakness;
- there are pains in the muscles of the hands, legs, back, neck, aching muscles.
The heroin withdrawal has one feature - the whole term( even if it lasts 1.5-2 weeks) a person does not want and can not eat. Any attempt to offer food can provoke aggression, and the process of food intake causes severe discomfort, up to facial cramps.
In the third stage, all the main signs are accompanied by intolerable pain.
The main signs of breaking at this stage:
- pupils are maximally expanded, do not react to light;
- sneezing attacks last up to 100 or more sneezes in a row;
- saliva constantly escapes from the mouth;
- pains in the back and limbs literally twist the person, it seems to the addict that the bones and joints actually break;
- injecting drug users complain of itching in the veins and jabs;
- increases insomnia;
- addict becomes very tense and angry, depression grows.
In this state, people are ready to do anything to get a portion of heroin and stop their anguish. They can beg, threaten relatives, deceive, steal from home, even kill, not fully aware of their actions.
In the fourth stage, the patient is already completely exhausted( several days of fasting affect), strongly loses weight( up to 10-12 kg):
- the skin becomes dry, earthy in color;
- eyes strongly sink;
- there are severe pains in the abdomen, diarrhea( up to 10-15 calls per day);
- the patient strongly wants to sleep, but can not fall asleep at all.
Withdrawal of heroin withdrawal is a very responsible process. Not all addicts can endure the withdrawal themselves. Without the support of the family and doctors, many people break down and, by any means, get a new dose of the drug in order to drown out the break-up of another opiate.
How to remove heroin breakage at home is a question that is relevant only for those drug addicts whose heroin experience is relatively small( several months).If a person uses heroin not so long ago, there is a chance to stop at the first stage, avoiding really serious pain and mental disorders. But if the dependence is already serious, it is better not to risk the health of a loved one and not to increase one's own suffering, but to turn to a specialized clinic.
Today, many institutions offer a service for removing heroin withdrawal from home. However, experienced narcologists warn - full-fledged help to drug addicts at home is simply impossible.
First, the doctor will not be able to stay with the patient around the clock to monitor all changes in the condition and prevent a possible attempt at suicide or violence. Secondly, patients in such a state require detoxification of the body, and the necessary equipment, preparations and qualified personnel who know what to do with heroin withdrawal are only in the hospital. It is simply unreal to transport all this "on the house".
In a hospital
In narcological clinics offer a whole range of services for drug users with withdrawal symptoms:
- directly withdrawal of
- detoxification of the body( elimination of toxins and poisons);
- recovery of the body.
In addition, antidepressants, tranquilizers, and less often psychotropic drugs can be used to relieve withdrawal. Vitamin complexes and amino acids are needed to restore the body.
However, withdrawal of withdrawal is not the treatment of drug addiction itself. Psychic dependence on heroin remains at the same level, therefore in each self-respecting clinic with the patient the psychotherapist necessarily urges to push the addict to the further treatment.
Consequences and Forecasts
The break-up of the heroin dependence of a person's life does not in itself threaten. Close drug addicts, who witnessed the terrible transformations of their own people, confirm this. The most difficult is to survive 3-5 days, and then the person gradually goes on the mend and soon completely recovers.
However, long-term use of drugs destroys the work of all body systems, and often breaks down against the background of serious pathologies - cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, etc. There is also a forced hunger strike, so the body undergoes severe stress during abstinence, which worn out organs can withstandnot always.
The main consequences that await a person during heroin withdrawal are a violation of respiratory function, severe arrhythmia, heart attacks and strokes. Because withdrawal causes strong tension, anger, aggression, the patient can cause dangerous actions in relation to himself and others.
In addition, heroin abstinence almost never passes without a trace. Within a month of experiencing a breakdown( and sometimes up to six months), the person can be returned unreasonable mood swings, anxiety, insomnia, spells of blues, severe fatigue, insomnia.
Physical dependence on heroin after a successfully experienced break-up is weaker, but the psychological is often only strengthened. Remembering his suffering, a drug addict can try to get a new dose as soon as possible in order to avoid another torture. And only full-scale complex treatment in the clinic, with the participation of narcologists and psychotherapists, will help to cope with heroin addiction.