Gastritis: types, causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, nutrition, diet, photo and video

Among the diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in the adult population of the Earth in the first place is gastritis. This word is familiar to almost everyone, but many people know about the disease itself. Most people who have nothing to do with medicine will say that this ailment is associated with a painful condition of the stomach. All this is true, but today we will try to understand more in detail what gastritis is, why it arises and what can result if one does not notice the first symptoms of the disease in a timely manner and does not start the right treatment.

What is gastritis: photos and videos

The story of such a common disease, perhaps, should begin with an accurate definition. Gastritis is a rather unpleasant and dangerous disease of the stomach when inflammation of its internal mucous membrane occurs, which results in pain in the left side of the abdomen, digestion processes are disrupted, acidity of gastric juice changes.

Disease gastritis of the stomach every year, younger and more common, despite the fact that doctors are trying to conduct preventive work. This disease in Russia is found in about 50 - 60% of the adult population. However, doctors do not doubt that these figures are understated, because some patients do not go to the hospital. According to health statistics, not only adult men and women, but also children, have been exposed to this disease. In boys and girls, it occurs in frequency approximately at the same level. The onset of the development of the disease often falls on periods of active organ growth( 5 to 6 years, 9 to 12 years).

In the photo gastritis of the stomach looks extremely unpleasant, the same can be said about the video, which will manage to look at this disease. However, before getting acquainted with the symptoms and causes, we suggest carefully viewing the video story and get the first idea of ​​the disease from the mouth of a well-known associate professor.

Types of gastritis

By the nature of the appearance and course of the disease, the speed of manifestation of symptoms distinguish between two types of gastritis: acute and chronic.

  1. Acute gastritis is diagnosed at the first referral of a patient to a medical institution. The disease is characterized by the presence of bouts of pain, rapid flow.
  2. Chronic gastritis is characterized by recurrent attacks and inexpressive pain. They are not so pronounced, but have their own character. Usually it develops if the disease, which occurred once in an acute form, has not been cured. It can last for more than a year, but it can torture a patient for decades.

According to the volume of lesions of the gastric mucosa, doctors differentiate the following types of gastritis:

  • catarrhal;
  • erosive;
  • phlegmonous;
  • atrophic;
  • is an autoimmune;
  • hypertrophic;
  • is allergic;
  • is infectious;
  • necrotic;
  • granulomatous;
  • is idiopathic.

One form of gastritis can go to another if treated incorrectly. Also, in the absence of help, the patient develops a stomach ulcer or cancer, which is much more difficult to cope with than with the primary manifestation of the disease.

Causes of gastritis in adults and children

Inflammation of the mucous membrane does not happen by itself. There are causes of gastritis, which cause the development of this disease. They can be both external and internal. Let's try to dwell on the most common causes and factors of disease occurrence.

Incorrect power to the .Many believe that this is the only reason for the development of gastritis. Although it is not so, but pay attention to it. The disease provokes untimely food intake, abuse of spicy dishes, eating in a very hot state, poor chewing food, constant food in the dry. All this leads to the fact that the gastric mucosa is constantly irritated, why the digestion process is disturbed.

Stress and nervous disorders .It would seem, what relation these causes have to the occurrence of stomach disorders. It turns out the most immediate. If a person is constantly nervous, the production of hormones is disrupted in the body. This leads to a decrease in the amount of production of gastric juice, to a change in its composition. This condition is dangerous for the mucosa, which eventually becomes damaged.

Medication administration .Many of the drugs we use for treatment contain a number of substances that are dangerous to the gastric mucosa. If there is a violation of doses, with uncontrolled use of drugs, poisoning of the organism occurs. In the first place, the stomach will suffer.

Heredity .Almost half of patients who have this disease have relatives who have received this diagnosis before. Perhaps, it affects the fact that in one family people eat, eat, and have bad habits.

Drinking and smoking .Alcohol consumption, like frequent smoking, leads to the fact that toxic substances enter the body. Settling on the mucosa of the stomach, they gradually cause her changes.

Helicobacter pylori bacterium .Pathogenic microorganism, which was recently discovered by scientists, is considered one of the main causes of gastritis. Quickly multiplying inside the stomach, tiny creatures hit its mucous membrane. This process is accompanied by its destruction, both the surface layer and the deep layer. Not always the bacterium Helicobacter pylori can be dangerous. Her presence threatens only when provoking factors appear. These include the weakening of immunity, hormonal failures, poisoning with toxic substances.

Chemical burns of the stomach .Gastritis can develop if ingested into the stomach dangerous for mucous substances: alkali, vinegar, acid. Here you can include drugs, alcohol and alcohol-containing drinks.

Autoimmune failures of .When the immune system secretes immune antibodies that are aggressive to the cells of their own organism, the mucosa suffers.

Presence of reflux .If the contents of the duodenum periodically return to the stomach, the bile contained in the contents can cause chemical burns on its surface wall. The impetus for such a malfunction in the body can serve as cholecystitis, nervous stress, pancreatitis.

Gastritis: symptoms and signs

In the presence of gastritis, its first symptoms sometimes appear not at the onset of the disease, but rather late, when it is already chronic or complicating. However, it is not uncommon for the first signs of gastritis to appear within 1 to 2 weeks of the disease. If you know them and pay attention to such callsigns, then, having turned to the doctor and changing the diet, you can quickly get rid of an insidious illness forever.

The appearance of an acute gastritis can be indicated by the following symptoms:

  • severity in the stomach, which occurs both at meal times and after some time after the meal is over;
  • nausea, often resulting in vomiting;
  • heartburn;
  • frequent pain, felt in the epigastric region( in the people this area is called "under the spoon");
  • dry mouth or increased salivation;
  • grayish white coating on the surface of the tongue.

With the development of chronic gastritis, the symptoms of the disease become more blurred, blurred. The organism has already adapted itself to live with this disease, so its course is often calm, almost unnoticeable until periods of severe exacerbation. At such times, pronounced signs of gastritis are noted:

  • feeling of discomfort in the abdomen;
  • stool disorder;
  • smelly smell from the mouth;
  • heartburn constant;
  • pain in the stomach;
  • flatulence;
  • loss of appetite;
  • sharp weight reduction.

If you do not pay attention in time to the manifestation of symptoms of gastritis, you can get serious complications. It is possible that with such a careless attitude to their own health, ulcers develop, stomach cancer, internal gastric bleeding.

Modern diagnosis of stomach gastritis

Diagnosis of gastritis is performed by a gastroenterologist. He can also assign laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis.

At the initial visit to the doctor, the patient should tell him about the symptoms of the disease, about his health, about the duration of discomfort in the stomach. Even a visual examination of the patient, palpation with the fingers of the abdomen makes it possible to notice the disease. The patient sits in a certain position, bending slightly forward. This makes his condition easier. Sometimes such information and inspection is enough to make a preliminary diagnosis, if the disease is not started.

In more serious cases, instrumental and laboratory diagnosis of the disease is required. The main methods of modern diagnostics that any city polyclinic can offer are:

  • FGDs. When examining the stomach with a gastroscope( probe), the doctor examines the mucous membranes and, if necessary, takes a small piece of the biopsy sheath that will be held in the laboratory.
  • pH-metry. This method of diagnosing gastritis makes it possible to accurately determine the acidity of the contents in the stomach.
  • Radiography allows the doctor to assess the condition of the body, its tone, changes in the shell.

A laboratory study involves a series of tests that will also help identify gastritis:

  • a respiratory test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori bacteria in a sample of tissues taken;
  • blood test for the detection of antibodies against bacteria Helicobacter pylori;
  • channel analysis for presence of Helicobacter pylor enzymes and latent blood;
  • general blood test.

Treatment and prevention of gastritis

If you find the very first unpleasant sensations in the left hypochondrium, you need to visit a doctor, as it may be necessary to treat gastritis. Only in exceptional cases in cases of bouts of illness the patient receives assistance in a hospital. Usually the treatment of gastritis is outpatient, so after consulting, you can go home and start a course of therapy at home.

The regimen for treatment of gastritis can not be the same for all patients, since it is necessary to take into account the form of the disease. Obligatory for both treatment and prevention of gastritis is the normalization of nutrition, diet, the rejection of bad habits. If necessary, patients are prescribed medication or folk treatment to restore the required acidity of the stomach. These can be preparations containing enzymes required by the body to increase acidity. Of the folk remedies can be recommended juice of plantain, dandelion, decoction of wormwood.

Antacids may be prescribed to relieve pain symptoms and reduce acidity. This is Fosfalugel, Maalox or Almagel. Take them need often enough: at least 5 - 7 times a day.

Tablets also help in the treatment of gastritis, but you can take these funds only after the appointment of a doctor. Effective drugs for this disease are Vikalin, Gastrotsepin, Festal.

To combat the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, antibiotic treatment is prescribed. The doctor determines its duration, he also chooses the drug that will be most effective( Clotrimazole, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Metronidazole and others).

The healing effect of sea buckthorn oil, which is recommended to take a daily teaspoon.

For prophylaxis of gastritis and avoidance of further relapses it is necessary: ​​

  • to eat correctly;
  • to give up alcohol;
  • stop smoking;
  • observe food hygiene;
  • to avoid stress.

Nutrition for gastritis: diet and menu

A prerequisite for a speedy recovery is a diet with gastritis. She is appointed by the doctor, given the severity of the disease and the general condition of the patient. Usually in the first days with acute course of malaise diet № 1 is prescribed with increased acidity. If the acidity in the stomach is lowered, the patient should be fed in accordance with diet number 2.Meals should be frequent. You can not eat a lot at one time. Crushed food, which involves 4 to 5 times the intake of food, will be the best option for any patient.

The set of products in the menu depends on the type of gastritis. If the disease is caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, then there will be no special restrictions in the diet. It is enough to exclude from use alcohol and sharp products. With reduced acidity, the correct diet will help stimulate the work of the sick stomach and restore digestion. For this, it is necessary to eat warm daily, but in no case are hot soups, fresh vegetables, rye bread. Sometimes you can use salting to increase the pH of the stomach. When choosing drinks, remember that you can not use hot coffee or tea. They need to be slightly cooled before use.

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