Solitaire( tapeworm) is a parasitic worm, the length of which varies from a few centimeters and reaches a maximum of 8 meters. In most cases, it affects the digestive organs of various animals and even fish. The most common species are pig and bovine chains. If bovine tapeworm gets into the human body, then a serious pathology develops, which is called shadowarhinhos. When a pig's thorn enters the human body, the disease is called a shadow. Regarding the differences of these two types of tapeworms, the main one is the length, that is, the bovine tapeworm is twice as long as the pigs. They are also distinguished by the ability to lay eggs in the host's body. Due to this feature, worms were divided into 2 main groups. The first is unarmed and the second is an armed tin-hog.
Tape worms are a separate species of helminths, which most often affect the children's body. This is due to their lack of a hygienic and sanitary culture. If the ribbon worm infects children, it does not reach large sizes, only a few centimeters. This tapeworm is called a dwarf tapeworm. His photos, as well as other varieties of tapeworms, can be found online at medical sites, where there is a mass of photos and videos. Pathological processes that cause tapeworms are most often found in countries such as Africa, India and the countries of Central Asia. There are several types of tapeworms: the most famous bull and pork tapeworm, a wide ribbon, flat ribbon, echinococcus, canine tapeworm, as well as a dwarf tapeworm parasitizing in infants.
What does a tapeworm look like?
The parasite looks like a flat lace, up to 1.5 cm thick. The body of a human tapeworm consists of several parts. This is the head, its neck( connecting link) and the special segments, and the number of segments of the worm is 1000 or more. The head of the parasite is rather small - about 3 mm and has four suckers, due to which the tapeworm clings to the walls of the intestine. This is a prerequisite for the development of invasion. In the human body, a tapeworm can live for about 20 years, if not carry out the appropriate treatment. During this time, a lot of serious complications may develop, some of them may be incompatible with life.
The segments of the worm are in the middle part of his body. They have their own reproductive system and contain about 150 eggs in each of them. On average, in one year of life, the snake lays about 500 million eggs, and for its life the number of eggs is more than 10 billion. Photos of the parasite can be viewed on the network, only in this way can you assess the extent of possible damage and the risk of dangerous complications.
Causes of infestation with tapeworm
There are many ways of getting a helminth-tapeworm into the human body. The most common of these are:
- unsanitary conditions of life;
- eating poorly cooked meat and fish, in which infectious eggs are stored;
- lack of hygiene measures.
As a result of this, the eggs of the chain come into the human body, where they mature and turn into larvae. After tapeworms become adults, they produce thousands of eggs. The latter can be partially excreted from the body together with the calves. This is an additional factor of infection, incl.self-infection. Therefore, in the process of treatment it is important to prevent re-invasion with preventive measures. The rest of eggs continues its development in the intestines, gradually ripening. When the tartan reaches puberty, it puts aside about 1,000,000 eggs per day. Many eggs of the worm get into the most different organs of people, along with lymph and blood, repeatedly penetrating the digestive system. As a result, a person has various inflammatory diseases that are characterized by an obvious, clinically pronounced pathology. However, helminthiasis does not have specific symptoms. This also makes diagnostic search difficult in the presence of objectively determined deviations.
To the possible reasons for human infection with these worms is the use of dirty water, unwashed vegetables and fruits. The second most common cause of infection is not enough fried fish. This may be due to insufficient heat treatment or insufficient time. If a person uses dried or raw fish, then he is most likely a potential carrier of tapeworm.
Based on the conducted studies, videos of which are laid out in the network with a detailed description, it was established that infection of a person with a tapeworm can occur after an insect bite, in close contact with infected people and with saliva of animals. However, these ways of infection are less common.
However, infection with flatworms can be avoided by adhering to the most famous and simple rules. For example, observe personal and household hygiene, subject to thorough heat treatment any fish and meat. Periodically carry out preventive measures to eliminate infection with tapeworms, use insecticides, limit contact with sick people and animals. Only the above measures will help to maintain health and not let into the body of tapeworm.
Symptoms of human infection with a chain
Infection with a tape chain is assumed for a whole list of symptoms. The most common symptoms of the presence of a chain in the human body are:
- abrupt weight loss;
- permanent digestive system disorders;
- gnashing his teeth at night while sleeping;
- disturbance of metabolic processes in the body;
- appearance on the body of a large number of papillomas and warts as a consequence of the depressed state of immunity;
- chronic fatigue;
- allergic rashes on the body( look like towering pimples);
- development of toxic anemia;
- is depressed;
- sharp pain in the muscles and joints, which is initially present periodically, and then observed continuously;
- severe itching in the anus( its appearance in a child is usually the first sign of an invasion).
In addition to the parasite of a tapeworm, such symptoms as body temperature jumps, causeless cough, sleep with nightmares, acne, sometimes there are pains in the lower abdomen, blood and mucus in the feces, strong salivation, especially in sleep. These signs are less common than those described above.
If you watch a video of reviews about this disease, many people infected with tapeworm have decreased appetite, which was replaced by sharp attacks of hunger. Sometimes these symptoms are accompanied by regular hiccoughs, constipation, alternating diarrhea, and a sensation of a coma in the throat. In addition, if there is an unpleasant smell from the mouth in the body of the tapeworm, the rumbling in the abdomen is constantly determined. In especially severe cases, involuntary vomiting and nausea may occur. Those toxins that this worm produces( if you need a photo of the chain can be viewed on any medical site), negatively affect the nervous system. Therefore, the patient becomes very irritable.
Diagnostics of tapeworm
There are several types of diagnostic measures for detecting a chain. The most common is the test of feces for the presence of tapeworm eggs. In parallel, a blood test and a smear are taken. The doctor compares the patient's symptoms and the results of the tests, and then makes a diagnosis.
But sometimes there are difficulties, especially related to the blurred clinical picture. If there is an infection with worms of different species, photos of which are on medical resources, then the course of the disease is very sluggish. It is this factor that becomes the most frequent cause of late treatment to a doctor. As a result, patients to a specialist fall into a neglected stage of the disease. By this time there was already a strong intoxication of the body, associated with the life of the chain. In feces, it is not always possible to detect traces of tapeworm, sinceits segments and eggs stand out not constantly. However, in the intestine there is already a huge number of chains. This is evidenced by many video operations performed on the intestinal obstruction.
In addition to the methods discussed above, there are other types of diagnostics that will help to detect the presence of the chain and the consequences associated with it. These additional methods include:
- smear with Lugol's solution;
- adhesive tape for the anus;
- method of Kato( microscopy of feces pre-colored by Kato);
- acetic and ester method;
- application of the preservative Turdyev and other types of diagnostics.
It should be noted that if the patient donates a blood test for antibodies to parasites, then the reliability of the method is not high. He gives only 50% of the correct results. At the last stages of the disease, to diagnose a tapeworm in a person, the doctor prescribes a computerized tomography, biopsy and ultrasound( direct visualization of the helminth in the affected organs).However, not every medical institution has the equipment for conducting a qualitative survey, which does not allow to detect the chain in time.
Treatment of a person from tapeworms
If you look at some videos on medical sites, then many people are worried about the question: "What does the tapeworm fear"?To destroy the chain, doctors prescribe a mass of potent medicines. Their list includes: Pirantel
However, the treatment scheme for tapeworm is rather complicated and is developed individually, because at one time it will not be possible to kill the tapeworm or a whole group of helminth tapeworms. Usually the doctor at the beginning of treatment appoints a large dose of the drug( shock dose), and then maintains the concentration of the pharmacological agent at a certain level in the body( maintenance dose).As a result, solitaires die already, and then leave the body with the help of laxatives( photos of parasites released can be found on the net).If they start to decompose inside the intestine, then this leads to severe poisoning. Therefore, a cleansing enema or the use of laxatives are necessary components at the time of treatment.
Therapy of solitaires in humans is carried out only in a hospital, since the reception of these pharmacological preparations in case of massive infection is contraindicated in the home. In addition, the patient must undergo a full examination for the presence of concomitant diseases, which during treatment from the chain can become aggravated. Even before the start of treatment, the doctor must determine the degree of infection with parasites, their size and the approximate number of tapeworms, and compare this with the weight and age of the patient, his immunity, the presence of allergies. With a full and detailed examination, in some cases, therapy can be performed both out-patiently - taking drugs at home and regularly visiting an infectious disease specialist in the clinic to assess the tolerability of therapy.
Preventing Chain Infestation
The basic rules that will help prevent infection by a chain is regular cleaning of your home, constant washing of hands before meals. For these purposes, it is desirable to buy a liquid soap, which will protect people from the chain after playing with animals, visiting the toilet, working with the land, playing sports. A special emphasis should be placed on keeping the house clean. This is a timely washing of dirty dishes, getting rid of flies in the house, using only clean towels and disposable linens in the home. The above measures will help to prevent penetration of eggs of the tapeworm into the human body and avoid the appearance of various infections.
Only clean fruits and vegetables should be used for food, it is good( at high temperature and sufficient time) to cook or fry fish, meat, while with mushrooms it is necessary to handle extremely carefully. To protect the immune system from penetration and development of the chain, it is necessary to drink preventive adaptogenic and vitamin preparations. After all, prevention is a prevention of the development of helminthiosis and a way to avoid serious complications. Identification of tapeworm at an early stage will help get rid of the chain cleaner faster and less painfully. More information about this can be found in the video from the Internet.