Brugio, loiasis, Vuhekeriosis and other transmissible helminthiases - symptoms, photo lesions, pathways of infection

The number of parasitic worms affected by the planet is billions of people. By the method of transmission, the worms are divided into:

  1. Nutritional, when the source of the invasion is in the ground or water and is transmitted with the products.
  2. Contact, penetrating through mucous or undamaged skin.

Transmission helminthiases, called diseases caused by bloodsucking insects. Compared to other helminthic invasions, transmissible is not so common, but, nevertheless, millions can be counted among its victims.

The causative agent of the disease are filarias with an elongated filiform body, which is pointed at the ends. The end of the head end is crowned by a mouth opening with three lips surrounding it. Oral capsule is absent, or is in its infancy. The disease is called filariasis, and its development pattern consists of several stages:

  1. Absorption by mosquitoes with the blood of a sick person, microfilariae( larvae).
  2. When entering the intestine of an insect, the worm larvae penetrate through the walls into the body cavity and settle in the fat body and pectoral muscles of the insect. After double moulting, they increase in size and return to the oral organ, accumulating in the proboscis of a mosquito. The entire process takes two to three weeks.
  3. When the insect bites the microfilaria through the damaged skin of a person penetrate into the blood and are carried throughout the body, settling in the tissues of various organs.

The transformation of larvae into an adult takes a long time, 1-2 years. Female adult parasite is viviparous. Adult filarians live in the cavity tissues of the human body and closed systems, and the larvae move along the blood vessels at night.

Transmission helminthiases, depending on the type of bloodsucking insect and the characteristics of infestation, are divided into:

  • vukhereriosis;
  • brugi;
  • loiasis.

Transmissible helminthiases are common in countries with a tropical and subtropical climate, and local residents have developed immunity to them. However, for Europeans you can get infected with these diseases quite easily and simply. Diseases are characterized by chronic course, and filarial parasites live in the human body to 17 years. The expressed clinical picture of the disease is absent, and sometimes the invasion is not manifested at all.


The disease with vueroeriosis is caused by a small filamentous parasite of white color, with a smooth cuticle. Female in length is 8-10 cm, and males are half as large. The size of the larvae protected by a transparent shell is 0.13-0.32 mm in length, and in width - 0.01 mm. The carriers of helminthic invasion are mosquitoes living in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, Western India, as well as on the eastern coast of South America and Central America.

Voekeriosis is affected 3-4 months after infection, and sometimes the incubation period can last up to two years. The disease begins with allergic manifestations, and painful exudative elements, then there is an increase in the size of the lymph nodes in the groin area, underarms, on the neck. This disease is characterized by fever, complications in the form of bronchial asthma and bronchopneumonia. The second stage of the disease, coming in a few years( from 2 to 7) is characterized by disorders of lymph flow with deep damage to the lymph vessels and the possibility of rupture of these vessels. In this case, the symptoms of acute intoxication of the body are clearly expressed. All these manifestations continue for several days and can be accompanied by vomiting, development of delirious condition. Abundant sweating means the end of an attack.

In the absence of treatment in the event of a disease with vukhereriosis, the disease progresses and leads to pulmonary fibrosis. Clinic of the disease includes acute and chronic form. Allergic manifestations are typical for the acute phase of the disease and most often vukhererioz occurs in men. Exacerbation of the course of the disease can occur only once or twice a year, and can occur with a frequency of up to several times a month.

Lymphatic edema appearing during exacerbation then disappears, but eventually the traces of edema do not disappear completely, and the acute phase of the disease turns into chronic. The chronic form of the disease comes not earlier than ten years from the moment of the disease. Progression of lymphostasis of proliferative processes and fibrosis in the skin leads to persistent edema and elephantiasis( elephantiasis), damage to various organs( scrotum, lower extremities, mammary glands).Especially the size of the scrotum increases substantially, and its weight reaches four kilograms. In some cases, the weight of the scrotum reaches 20 kg and even noted the case when it reached 102 kg.

In the chronic phase, it is possible to develop a dropsy in the testis shell and larvae of the filaria are found in the fluid puncture. Milky white color of urine in this case indicates the presence of lymph in the urine, and diarrhea with an admixture of lymph leads to weight loss in patients and hypoproteinemia. In the photo of vukhereriosis it is clear what ugly forms the disease takes. Diagnosis of the disease based on the results of laboratory and instrumental studies, clinical data of the course of the disease and epidemiological analysis. Detection of microfilariae in the blood during microscopic examination confirms the diagnosis.

Treatment of vukhereriosis is carried out under in-patient conditions, and a set of therapeutic measures includes:

  1. De-worming with antihistamines.
  2. Preventing or suppressing bacterial infections in the event of presence.
  3. Weakened allergic reaction.

When hydrolyzing the testicles, the only solution to the problem is surgery.

Vuchereriasis is mainly affected by the inhabitants of cities, when population density, polluted water bodies and lack of sanitary control lead to the creation of an enabling environment for the propagation of disease vectors - mosquitoes. The main ways of infection with vukherriosis are the transfer of microfilariae( parasite larvae) from an infected person to mosquitoes to another person. The sucked microfilariae, after transformations in the body of an insect, accumulate in the proboscis and when a healthy person bites, the larva breaks through the cuticle and penetrates through the skin into the blood. Man is the only master.


Brugias is a nematodosis from the group of filariasis, which causes diseases of the human lymphatic system. The parasite is 60 mm long( female) and 25 mm( male) with a spirally folded end, has two different forms of spicules. Like vukhereiosis, parasites are characterized by night periodicity, but also there is a strain with night subperiodicity. Adult individuals parasitize in lymphatic vessels, and larvae live in blood vessels.

Bruogius is widespread in the Asian region, the source of helminthic invasion is man, and the carrier is mosquitoes Mansonia, Aiansonia, Anopheles Aedes. Manifestations of brugiosis infection are possible 2-3 months after infection. In the initial stage, which can last from two to seven years, the main symptoms are:

  • skin itching;
  • urticaria;
  • fever;
  • inflammation of the lymph nodes;
  • neuralgia.

The transition of brugioz to the chronic stage is characterized by swelling of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. In this case, there are pains in the abdomen and inguinal region, a sharp increase in lymph nodes. A feature of brugioz( in the photo) is the development of lymphangitis and lymphadenitis, not only in the lower limbs, but also in the upper limbs. The affected organ grows to enormous size and is deformed ugly. In case of severe course of the disease, in addition to trophic ulcers, muscle atrophy, chills appear, "elephantoid fever".The interweaving of parasites into the ball and the compaction of the walls of the lymph vessels during inflammation leads to their blockage.

In some cases, brugiosis is asymptomatic, with no clinical manifestations. This occurs if there are no inflammatory processes caused by clogging of parasites of lymphatic vessels. This form of infection is detected by chance, when the presence of microfilaria in the blood during the analysis.

Changes in the endothelium of lymphatic vessels, areas of necrosis in the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them, contribute to the development of a dangerous infection caused by cocci. It is possible to detect the presence of brugioze when microfilariae are detected in the blood, but blood sampling for analysis is carried out at night. If hiluria developed, sometimes larvae can be found in the urine. In the treatment of brugiosis, a broad-spectrum drug, Albendazole, is used in combination with Ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine.


Loaoza is a round Loa Loa worm with a length of 30 mm( male) to 70 mm( female) with larvae 0.25-0.3 mm wide and 0.006-0.008 mm wide. Intermediate hosts and carriers of infection are hornflies, sucking at bites with the blood of the microfilaria, then after some time( 7-10 days) they transmit the invasion to the person. Mechanical effects and the disorder of the human body by metabolic and decay products are characterized by the following symptoms of Loiasis:

  • slight leakage on different parts of the body, which can change the location;
  • severe itching;
  • pain and burning in the urethra or eye.

Loaosis can cause complications in the penetration of microfilariae into the brain, leading to death. In addition, severe leaosis may lead to:

  • exfoliation of the eye;
  • neuropathy;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • abscesses;
  • edema of the larynx.

In the photo, loiasis in the conjunctiva of the eye looks very distinct and in general all movements of parasites under the skin are very noticeable. With timely treatment of Loiasis, there will be no negative consequences.

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