Ascaridosis is a disease caused by roundworms, until recently it was considered relatively safe. It is very common all over the world. Ascariasis is responsible for many diseases that lead to serious health problems. That is why this disease can not be considered safe. Such parasites migrate throughout the body, affect various organs and cause allergies. Infection with this disease occurs with ingestion of invasive ascaris eggs.
The reproductive system of these parasites is very well developed, they are dioecious helminths. The ovaries of a large female can postpone about 240 thousand eggs per day( pictured).Male and female have typical signs of their gender. The size of the female is always greater than the male, it usually reaches 40 cm, and it is about 25 cm, its posterior end is always bent. Such a hook is necessary for reproduction during mating, the male with special outgrowths on the body is attached to the female.
Unfertilized ascarid eggs are found in the female spermatheca, where fertilization takes place. It should be noted that the female lays all the eggs as fertilized, and unfertilized. But if in the first case the infection, perhaps in the second case, no, they can not cause harm to human health.
The ascarid eggs of the human come out with feces outward, their maturation takes place in the soil. These worms do not have an intermediate host. Accidental ingestion of eggs by humans makes possible the further development of worms. They can not develop outside the human body. Their transfer is possible only from person to person. That is why most eggs die, although they are very resistant to external influences.
How do the ascarid eggs look like?
They are very small, their size is about 0.05 to 0.07 mm. In form they are usually oval or round. Unfertilized eggs, as a rule, are irregular in shape, they do not have an embryo and they are non-invasive. They are well protected by a multilayer sheath. The five-layered shell consists of the following layers:
- Protein. This is the outer layer, it has a brown color, in some cases may be absent.
- Three-layer shell. It is glossy and very durable, it is these three layers that protect the embryo from an unfavorable environment and all sorts of mechanical damages.
- Inner shell. It is considered to be the thinnest, thanks to the porous structure, water and the nutrients necessary for the embryo pass perfectly through it, it is a kind of membrane.
How askarid eggs look like and what they consist of is now clear, to consider in more detail how they look on the photo. From infection to the first masonry takes approximately 2-3 months. It is through such a period of time that eggs can be found in the feces. They are very small, so they can only be examined under a microscope.
Eggs of worm-ascaris can begin to develop only in the human body. For animals, they do not pose a danger. Although the closest relatives of such worms are horse and pork variety.
Ascaris eggs: resistance to external factors
Eggs that have left the body with feces must mature in the ground. For the normal development of the embryo, special conditions are necessary. For example, at an optimum temperature of 25 degrees, maturation takes place in two weeks. It is through this period that they become infectious. In addition to temperature, moisture is very important. If eggs with feces fall into sandy soil, the development of the embryo will slow down, because such soil is heated up more strongly and moisture evaporates faster from it.
The process of maturation of the larva in the temperate zone strongly slows down and can last up to six months. Development stops when the temperature drops below 12 degrees. But the larva in the eggs still remains viable, it will continue to ripen with the onset of spring.
Ascaris eggs very well tolerate various climatic conditions. They do not die even in severe frost. In a temperate climate, they can remain viable for seven years. Such chemicals as alcohol, vodka, and ether can ruin them. In addition, they die from direct sunlight and boiling.
Ways of transferring the ascarid eggs
Infection usually occurs by an oral-fecal route. This means that the eggs that are excreted together with the feces, and then ripen in the ground, become invasive. They can get into the human body if it does not follow the rules of hygiene. Often eggs in the feces are found in children, because they neglect hygiene, they can taste the earth on taste or eat unwashed fruits. That is why the ascarid eggs in the feces of a child( in the photo) are not uncommon, parasites cause serious health problems, so they need to be disposed of. Treatment should appoint a doctor.
How to look askarid eggs in feces can be considered only in a photo taken under a microscope, so children and people at risk should be regularly analyzed for the identification of helminths. The symptomatology of the disease depends on the number of swallowed eggs, the more of them, the more pronounced the signs. In addition to children, people associated with farming are affected by this disease, villagers, especially those who fertilize the soil with feces.
What are the ways of transferring eggs of worm-ascarids to humans? Consider the most common options:
- can not use unboiled water, taken from natural sources, there may contain parasites;
- vegetables and fruits directly from the beds there is not recommended, they must be washed;
- unsanitary conditions of work, can also cause ascaridosis;
- food that has not undergone sufficient heat treatment can also be dangerous.
It is believed that the transmission of ascarids occurs only from person to person. Domestic pets can not be carriers of this disease - the human Ascaris can not live in the body of animals.
However, pets can still be the cause of infection, for example, if a dog was walking on the street and lying in the ground, and then a man stroked his pet and did not wash his hands, then infection is possible. You can get infected even from a cat that does not go to the street, ascaris eggs can get to it from the dirty shoe of the owners. That's why animals should be given special pills twice a year as prevention.
How the ascaris eggs look in the article is described, but only a laboratory assistant can see them under a microscope. Analyzes are the main way to identify these parasites in the body. Unlike pinworms, roundworms rarely go out together with feces, mostly this happens when they have already died. This is why it is difficult to recognize these parasites. Allergic reactions, painful cough, digestive disorders, anemia, weakness - all these symptoms should alert, they can indicate the presence of helminthic invasion. In children, ascariasis can cause a backlog in mental and physical development.