A characteristic feature of this disease is the rapid development of the inflammatory process, which has a negative effect on the integrity of the mucosa, which is lined with the large intestine.
Symptomatic of colitis includes bloating, painful cramping in the abdomen, alternation of loose stools and constipation, and presence in the stool of blood and mucus. All this negatively affects the quality of life. In most cases, any kind of colitis is accompanied by loss of appetite and weakness in the entire body.
What are the varieties of colitis by the nature of the course?
This disease can occur in a chronic or acute form, we will consider in detail each of them:
- Acute. In this case, the symptomatology is clearly pronounced. The main cause of this type of colitis is various microorganisms. These can be streptococci, salmonella, staphylococcus and dysenteric microorganisms. The development of the acute form takes place in a short time. At the initial stage, there are pulling and cramping pains in the abdomen, which are accompanied by rumbling and increased gassing in the intestine. After a sharp increase in body temperature( up to 38 ° C) and general malaise. Fecal masses in acute form have an admixture of blood or mucus.
- Chronic. This variety of colitis is characterized by a sluggish course, the pronounced symptomatology is of a periodic nature. In most cases, the aggravation of this type of disease occurs as a result of taking antibiotics, if the diet is disturbed or stressful situations. The chronic form is characterized by unstable stools, diarrhea attacks are sharply replaced by constipation. In addition, there are false desires for defecation caused by increased gas production. Fecal masses also have an admixture of mucus or blood.
- Unspecified - usually this diagnosis is made when there is no possibility to give an accurate conclusion. Even with a pronounced symptomatology, the doctor can give the patient a diagnosis of unspecified colitis if there is no way to obtain reliable confirmation of another form of the disease. This may be due to both the severity of the patient's condition and the lack of necessary equipment.
In the chronic form, painful sensations of a noisy character prevail, which can give to the region of the left hypochondrium.
Types of colitis for reasons of occurrence of
There are several types of provoking factors that affect the course of the disease, its treatment and prevention measures. Proceeding from this, it is determined, what are the varieties of colitis:
- Infectious - the occurrence of this type of disease is caused by the vital activity of bacteria and intestinal parasites, which can enter the body when food processing is insufficient, drinking contaminated water. Covering the large intestine with an inflammatory process is directly related to the damage to the mucous membrane that lays it. For this species, which is often colitis, the edema of the intestinal wall is characteristic, leading to a violation of their contraction. In addition, infectious colitis is accompanied by an increase in body temperature, which is caused by toxins that are the result of microbial activity. For the same reason, intoxication can begin. It is worth noting that in most cases this species is caused by food poisoning.
- Ischemic - in this case, segmental lesion of the intestine is caused by a violation of blood supply. This species most often affects the area of the intestine, located near the splenic bend. Ischemic colitis is most common in elderly people, since it is for this period that atherosclerotic lesions of the vessel walls are characteristic. In addition, the lack of blood supply can be caused by a hernia of the stomach or by a turn of the intestines. When diagnosing the gangrenous form of this kind of colitis, the patient is immediately hospitalized and proceeds to surgical treatment. This is another kind, what happens colitis, is accompanied by stabbing pain in the intestine, the occurrence of which is most often associated with overeating. His symptoms include fever, severe pain and blood in the feces.
- Drug is another type of colitis caused by the intake of a number of antibiotics and laxatives over a long period of time. Such drugs have a negative effect on the intestinal microflora. In most cases, that part of the population that is engaged in self-treatment is affected by this type. Only in rare cases, its development occurs as a result of taking medications prescribed by doctors of other specializations.
- Ulcerous - the main cause of this type of disorder is a violation of the normal course of immune processes. As a result, small ulcers appear on the mucosa that lines the intestine. If you ask a specialist how the course of this type of colitis happens, you will often hear - chronic. The severity of the course of this disease can be mild, moderate and severe. The first two are characterized by general malaise and a feeling of weakness, which is accompanied by a fever and frequent loose stool. When diagnosing a severe degree of the disease requires immediate surgical intervention.
On how the colitis is directly dependent scheme of his treatment. Individual methods are used for each type and form of flow. So, for example, with infectious form it is antibacterial and antiparasitic therapy, and with ischemic - surgical intervention. In all cases, the diet is necessarily selected.