The smallest group of leukocytes are basophils that perform many functions in the human body.
In particular, they not only support blood flow in small vessels and provide a migration path for other leukocytes in the tissue, but also effectively affect the growth of new capillaries.
If basophils are elevated in an adult in the blood, then this indicates the development of the disease - basophilia. The causes of this condition are different, below we will consider the main ailments, because of which basophils in the blood rise above the norm.
The main function of this type of granulocyte is to participate in the inflammatory process and the development of allergic reactions, namely anaphylactic shock. In addition, basophils block the toxins that enter the body through the skin( poisons of insects and animals) and reduce blood clotting due to the presence of heparin in them. In the place of destruction of basophils there is edema of the tissues, itching, redness.
It is possible to generalize the basic functions of basophils in the human body :
- suppression and "blocking" of allergens;
- is an obstacle to the spread of foreign particles over the body;
- preservation of the body's defenses;
- regulation of permeability and tonus of microvessels;
- maintenance of water and colloid status, as well as skin metabolism;
- neutralization of toxins and poisons, including insects;
- participation in the processes of clotting and phagocytosis.
If basophils are raised in an adult, it means that the problem must be sought in an anamnesis, to analyze the previous illnesses, and the patient's living conditions. Further we will consider in more detail why there are raised basophils in the blood of an adult, and what diseases lead to such indicators.
The normal number of basophils varies with age and is calculated as a percentage of the total number of white blood cells in the blood:
- for adults: 0.5-1%;
- newborn: 0.75%;
- 1 month: 0.5%;
- 1 year: 0,6%;
- 2 years: 0,7%
As can be seen, the norm of basophils in the blood is from 0.5% to 1% of the total number of leukocytes. In absolute terms, this yields about 0.3 nanoliter per liter of blood.
Causes of increased basophils
Why are basophils raised in adults in the blood, what does it say? Different states can provoke an increase in the values of basophils above normal, ranging from immediate reaction to the administration of the drug and ending with a long-running inflammatory process.
Consider the main causes of elevated basophils in an adult:
- Allergic reactions. Upon contact with the allergen, the granules contained in the cells are released. Because of this, typical allergy symptoms occur: itching, rash, swelling, etc.
- In acute infectious diseases of the liver, basophils are also elevated.
- Inflammations( including chronic ones) located in the digestive tract. Particularly distinctly the effect is observed in acute inflammations of the intestine.
- Often basophils in the blood are elevated in the period preceding menstruation.
- Permanent irradiation with small doses of radiation( for example, this applies to those who work with X-ray machines).
- Diseases of the circulatory system.
Thus, a general blood test with an increased amount of basophilic granulocytes first of all speaks of the penetration of another's antigen, which by its characteristics does not completely fit into the antigenic composition of the organism, so the latter also tries to tear off the enemy as soon as possible.
Sometimes, the response is very violent and rapid( anaphylactic shock), then the patient needs the same rapid medical help( the introduction of adrenaline, hormones), otherwise the sad result will come quickly.
Physiological causes of
Physiological processes of that cause an increase in basophils:
- When menstruating, at the beginning of ovulation, when the level of estrogen in the blood rises.
- During recovery of the body after the infection.
- Raised basophils as a result of a small exposure to radiation doses, often from it suffer radiologists, laboratory technicians.
- After taking contraceptive medications, which contain a large number of estrogens.
Therefore, there are many causes of basophilia, so a thorough examination should be done to identify the cause of each specific case. Self-treatment is absolutely unacceptable.
Elevated basophils in a child
What does this mean? The state when basophils in a child are raised is called basophilia and the causes of its occurrence are different:
- Insect bites.
- Infection with helminths. .
- Hemolytic anemia.
- Deficiency in the blood of iron
- Sinusitis chronic.
- Nephrotic syndrome.
- Infectious Diseases
- Some medications are taken.
- Generalized allergy, drug or food.
- Myxedema, or insufficient supply of tissues and organs with thyroid hormones.
- Diseases of the blood: myeloleukemia chronic, leukemia acute, true polycythemia, Hodgkin's disease.
- Gastrointestinal pathologies of chronic course, for example, ulcerative colitis. Basophils can increase with the transition of an acute disease into an acute form.
A decrease in the level of basophils is possible only with the timely treatment of the underlying disease, which became the cause of the increase, while introducing foods containing vitamin B12( milk, eggs, kidneys) into the baby's diet.
What to do if basophils in the blood are increased
In most cases, basophilia is cured if the immediate cause of its occurrence is eliminated, in particular, to cure the underlying disease. But in some cases, a high level of basophils can be observed in relatively healthy people. Then it is necessary to use these recommendations:
- To increase the saturation of the body with vitamin B12 , because it actively participates in the process of formation of blood cells and the work of the brain. This can be done by taking special medications or adding to your diet dishes from meat, kidneys, eggs and milk.
- Include in the diet iron containing vitamins and products of : liver( especially chicken), buckwheat, fish and other seafood.
If basophils in the blood are elevated, in some cases, it is sufficient to cancel the intake of medications: antithyroid, estrogen-containing and the like. In women, basophilia can occur during ovulation, in the early days of the menstrual cycle, as well as in the onset of pregnancy. This is due to a direct relationship between the level of estrogens and progesterone in the blood and the number of basophils.