1 Etiology of the disease in combination with myopia
Provoking factors of development of acquired or congenital astigmatism are various disorders:
- deformation of the maxillary gland;
- retinitis pigmentosa;
- systemic ailments, inflammatory eye diseases;
- anomalous lens shape;
- embryonic alcohol syndrome;
- surgical interventions, traumatic injuries.
2 Pathogenesis of the pathology
In the cavity of the eye socket there is an eyeball. In children this pair formation has the form of a compressed ellipsoid, in adults it is an irregular globular shape. At the age of 14-15 years, the eyeball is finally formed. A strong refractive medium is a completely transparent cornea in the shape of a dome, located in the front of the eye. It shapes the eye. The most prominent point of the cornea corresponds to the front pole.
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All oculomotor muscles are attached to the sclera. In the normal state, due to refraction, light rays are collected at one point of the retina, reflected from the object that the person saw. With myopic astigmatism, the light rays are focused simultaneously at 2 points in front of the retina or at one point in front of the retina and in one - on the retina. Violation of the spherical shape of the cornea is the main cause of the anomaly of the refraction of the eye. Visual acuity is significantly reduced, there is a significant distortion of the image, since the cornea of the eye and the cross section of the lens have different refractive power.
Due to the absence of a focal point in the sensory organ system, an abnormal refraction of the rays occurs. The shape of the eyeball is distorted. In a patient with myopic astigmatism, a correct image is not formed, since each ray of light is refracted in its own way. Some parts of the image are completely blurred, others are relatively clear.
Thus, a person has blurred vision, and he has to squint, tilt his head, strongly pull back his eyelids, change the angle of view, as the image in the eyes stretches, doubles, distorts. This is an abnormal combination of myopia with astigmatism.
3 Symptoms of the disease
With this specific structure of the eye, the patient is deformed or the curvature of the cornea. At any distance a person has a blurred image of the object on the retina of the eye, and to better see, he has to tilt his head.
Myopic astigmatism is characterized by rapid fatigue of the eyes during exercise. In the brow region there are uncomfortable sensations. There is excessive lacrimation. Hyperemia of the eyeball occurs in a child of child age after any visual activity.
Periodically, after visual exertion, there are feelings of dizziness, rubbing in the eyes. The condition worsens the nebula of vision, the headache worries. All items are seen in a distorted form. A person is forced to constantly screw up his eyes, looking at objects.
4 Species of
The clinical picture can be assessed by a qualified ophthalmologist, if symptoms of pathology develop, the astigmatism of both eyes develops. A child who suffers from such a pathology of congenital genesis lacks visual impressions, the optical apparatus develops inadequately. There is a reduction in visual acuity of a secondary nature. As a result, amblyopia develops.
Because of the deformation of the eyeball, corneal myopic astigmatism occurs, and a rare form of pathology is associated with the anomalous shape of the lens - lens astigmatism. If simple myopic astigmatism develops, myopia occurs in one area of the eye, and normal vision is preserved in the other sector.
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Complex myopic astigmatism occurs especially often. Develop organic disorders of the fundus. In different parts of the eye, both foci are arranged incorrectly, they are in front of the retina, so myopic disturbances are noted on both meridians. A weak degree of astigmatism is observed in 40% of schoolchildren. Visual acuity is significantly reduced with the 2nd or 3rd degree of astigmatism. A strong violation of visual focusing is detected in 6% of children.
Visual acuity reduction becomes irreversible if the necessary measures are not taken under the supervision of a qualified specialist. Slowly developing strabismus, one eye is idle, as amblyopia develops. This ailment does not lend itself to optical correction.
5 Modern Diagnostic Methods
Physiological astigmatism is diagnosed in almost all adults and children up to a year. In one-year-old children, vision is gradually normalized, the severity of the impairment of the ability to see decreases. However, the pathology can progress, there are various complications. Parents need three times to check with the eyesight of the child's first year of life.
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Objective and accurate results of the study of eye refraction give keratoscopy. With the help of this modern method, you can check the functionality of the organ of vision, in time to recognize the pathology. The specialist assesses the overall health of the eyes. Computer diagnostics allows you to quickly obtain a three-dimensional model of the cornea of an adult patient.
6 General principles of treatment
Immediately after detecting a violation of the ability to see a child, it is necessary to begin adequate therapy. Immediate correction requires an impaired focus. This allows you to stabilize your child's vision. It is very difficult to treat a baby to two years with congenital progressive astigmatism. Conservative therapy is indicated for the purpose of correction of disorders.
General strengthening procedures according to age, special therapeutic exercises for the eyes in the form of games strengthen the eye muscles. A balanced vitaminized diet is needed. Wearing glasses with cylindrical lenses is recommended from 2 years. Such optical glasses in different sections have different refractive powers. The patient in astigmatic glasses receives a clear and clear vision. It is necessary to change the optics in time, to watch the growth of the eye.
Older children can wear contact lenses. With the correct selection of optical glasses, vision is stabilized, the baby can clearly see objects, the structures of the organ of vision develop correctly, which are responsible for focusing the image on the retina. Progression of the disease stops. However, glasses with cylindrical lenses do not relieve the congenital defect of the cornea.
Only surgically, using excimer laser correction, you can correct the shape of the cornea and finally cure astigmatism. But such surgery is only shown after 20 years, because by this time the formation of the optical system of the eyes is coming to an end. All the organs of the child are in constant development, therefore, until the age of majority, only conservative treatment is performed.
Parents should be careful. Urgent treatment of an ophthalmologist requires symptoms of impaired vision in the child.
Treatment of ophthalmic disorders should be started from an early age of the baby.
Ophthalmologists give a fairly favorable prognosis, if a competent diagnosis of the disease is carried out, myopic astigmatism does not progress, the doctor's recommendations are followed.