1 Types of the disease
Orthostatic hypotension is divided into:
- Idiopathic( occurs unexpectedly, without an obvious cause of origin).
- Medication Orthostatic Hypotension.
- Shay-Dryger Syndrome( there is a decrease in pressure in the vessels when the body position changes).As a result, the nervous system is damaged and hormonal failure occurs.
- Subacute hypovolemia. Develops against the background of a decrease in blood in the body.
- Acute hypovolemia( severe decrease in blood volume).
- Neurologic neurological hypotension( CNS damage).
Each of the types of hypotension has its own causes, signs and symptoms.
2 The causes of the pathology
The reasons for this state of the body can be both diseases and bad habits. Among the main reasons can be identified:
- The reception of medicines, in particular for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Long-term use of these drugs or excess dosage can lead to the development of hypotension.
- Uncontrolled reception of alcoholic beverages.
- Severe bleeding.
- Excessive sweating.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- The defeat of the adrenal glands.
- Diabetic neuropathy.
- Pernicious anemia.
- Varicose veins.
- Myocardial infarction.
- Prolonged bed rest.
- Hormonal burst during the first trimester of pregnancy or puberty.
- Addison's disease.
The reasons for the development of the disease is not small, therefore, before starting treatment it is necessary to undergo a examination with a specialist.
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3 What happens in the body with the disease
Normally, the compensatory-adaptive reaction of the body is regulated by the brain, as well as by two systems - the endocrine and immune systems. When the work of one of the systems is disrupted, there is an increased load on the other two systems.
When a person changes his position of the body, there is a buildup of blood in the limbs, while in the vessels there is a reaction of the baroreceptors, which send a signal to the central part of the brain. From the brain department comes the body, which speaks of the narrowing of the arteries. The brain urgently sends a command to close the patency of blood vessels, the delay of blood in the upper body, the production of a hormone, which will lead to increased vascular spasm.
Hypotension, which develops in humans for various reasons, involves strengthening the body's protective functions, which help maintain blood supply to the upper parts of the body and internal organs.
4 Clinical Symptoms of
With orthostatic hypotension, a number of symptoms develop that indicate a circulatory disturbance in the brain.
In particular, the disease is characterized by:
- with a feeling of heaviness in the head;
- with vomiting or nausea;
- blurred vision;
- sudden weakness;
- loss of consciousness;
- by involuntary urination.
If the blood supply is broken in other organs, hypotension can manifest itself in the form of pain and discomfort in the neck, respiratory distress, signs of angina pectoris.
Most often, the symptoms last for a short period, developing against a background of a sharp change in the position of the body from horizontal to vertical, with prolonged standing in the standing position, as a result of prolonged physical exertion.
But it also happens that, waking up one morning, a person may simply not be able to get out of bed because of the dizziness. This symptom often worries pregnant women, appearing in the first trimester of pregnancy, along with other signs of toxicosis. As a rule, such a hypotension affects women who have a hereditary predisposition to anemia, and those who suffer from hypotension.
Hypotension in pregnancy passes after some time on its own and does not require special treatment. If the symptoms strongly disturb the woman in the position, you should inform the doctor about it and get the diagnosis for the purpose of further treatment.
5 Diagnostic methods
Because many of the signs and symptoms of hypotension are similar in appearance to a large number of other diseases, a number of examinations are necessary to make a diagnosis. As a diagnosis, the doctor examines all the symptoms of the patient, learns about the lifestyle and about the possible causes that the patient himself knows( for example, the presence of a chronic disease).Further, blood sampling, examination of internal organs and delivery of various biological materials to the study are carried out.
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A number of orthostatic tests are also used, which consist of carrying out a special test to determine the hypotension in a person. The person is examined for the suspected disease with:
- Active load. For this, the patient is asked to lie down in a horizontal position, lie down a bit, then abruptly rise to the sitting position.
- Passive load. To conduct this procedure, people are placed on a special stand, which the nurse or doctor is transferred from one position to another. The patient's muscles will not be involved.
After orthostatic tests, the frequency of cardiac muscle contraction, blood pressure and, in general, the human condition will be determined. Before the procedure, all indicators are measured in a calm state, during and after the test.
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Thanks to orthostatic tests it is possible to say exactly whether a person has hypotension in orthostatic type or not. Despite this, for more accurate indicators and setting the cause, you will need a comprehensive examination of internal organs and systems.
Because hypotension is similar to syncope, a number of examinations are also carried out to differentiate these diagnoses, including collecting information about when hypotension occurs, the strength with which it is manifested, and whether the symptoms are always the same.
6 Treatment measures
Treatment depends on the cause of hypotension. So, for example, if a person has diabetes, high blood pressure and hypotension, then it is very difficult to eliminate symptoms. In particular, you need proper nutrition and timely use of medications.
If the cause of the disease is not clear, it is possible to prevent the development of negative symptoms. In particular, you need to adhere to simple rules:
- does not change sharply the position of the body;
- does not stand in one place for a long time;
- in case of varicose veins it is necessary to create compression with the help of elastic bandage;
- more to walk in the fresh air, to ventilate the room, providing a sufficient volume of oxygen;
- drink at least 2 liters of water per day;
- not to abuse alcohol;
- to quit smoking.
It is necessary to maintain blood pressure and with the help of drugs such as Ephedrine, Gutron. For a radical solution to the problem, the funds of Cerukal, Vestibo, Metindol will help. Taking these drugs without the prior appointment of a specialist is dangerous because of their extensive list of side effects.
7 Therapy with folk remedies
With the help of herbal preparations, you can also eliminate unpleasant symptoms that occur during orthostatic hypotension. You can prepare such preparations yourself or buy ready-made tinctures in a pharmacy.
As a tonic, they take tinctures from the following herbs:
- of ginseng root;
- of the golden root;
- of the Tartar;
- of Chinese magnolia vine.
You can buy dried fruits, leaves and roots of plants in the pharmacy, then brew them at home and drink according to instructions or medical recommendations. Some of the plants, despite exceptionally natural origin, have contraindications to eating. Especially on this should pay attention to those people who have chronic diseases of internal organs( cholecystitis, arrhythmia, etc.).
At home, you can perform respiratory gymnastics several times a day, which will improve the oxygenation of the brain and other organs.
Special exercises are also suitable for therapy. It is necessary to collect as much air into the lungs as possible while inflating the stomach, count to 5 and exhale, drawing the stomach inward. Repeat exercise at least 7 times. At first, there may be a slight dizziness, but soon it will pass, and the condition will improve much.
It is necessary to perform respiratory training with deep breaths with a breathing delay of 5 seconds and exhalations, which should last half as long as inhalations.
Perform exercises regularly to achieve a positive result. The duration of their implementation should not be limited to a week or a month. Exercises in hypotension should become a way of life for a person with a similar disorder. In addition to the breathing exercises, it is necessary to engage in exercise therapy, using the exercises "Bike", "Scissors", "Elements of boxing in a lying position," etc.
Hiking in the fresh air, small physical exertion, therapy with the help of vitamin preparations - all this will be beneficial and will improve the symptoms with hypotension. Before carrying out the procedures, the examination must be completed in order not to miss the development of a pathological disorder or a dangerous disease.