1 Classification of the pathology of
With hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland secrete very few thyroid hormones, which slows down many of the processes in the human body. There are more than 10 species of this disease, and all of them are caused by disorders in the thyroid gland. In most cases, this disease affects women 40 years of age or older, although people with hypothyroidism may be sick regardless of age and sex. There are cases when this disease was inherited. One of the prerequisites for the emergence of this disease is the lack of iodine in the human body.
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Hypothyroidism can occur due to the influence of negative factors on the human body. This form of the disease is called acquired hypothyroidism. There is also an inborn form of this disease that occurs in infants. The acquired form of this disease occurs in the overwhelming majority of cases, and only 1% is due to congenital hypothyroidism.
There is another classification of this disease, based on the causes of the decline in thyroid function:
- Chronic. This type of disease has another name - chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. It occurs when a malfunction occurs in the functioning of the immune system, as a result of which the body itself begins to destroy the cellular tissue of the thyroid gland. This form of the disease occurs in a few years or even decades after the onset of the pathological process.
- Iatrogenic. This form of the disease occurs as a result of partial or complete removal of the thyroid gland. After surgery, postoperative hypothyroidism may develop, and after treatment with radioactive iodine, post-radiation hypothyroidism may develop.
- Transient. This form of the disease occurs, for example, with postpartum thyroiditis.
- Hypothyroidism as a consequence of viral thyroid disease.
- Hypothyroidism as a consequence of neoplasms in the thyroid gland.
Depending on the degree of damage to the body during the development of the disease, primary, secondary and tertiary hypothyroidism are distinguished. Primary occurs when the thyroid gland is disrupted, secondary - when the pituitary gland is damaged, and the tertiary form disturbs the hypothalamus.
2 Clinical picture of the disease
People suffering from this disease slow down all life processes in the body. The thyroid gland produces an inadequate amount of hormones, as a result of which the energy in the human body is not produced so intensively. For this reason, patients feel a constant chill. Such patients often suffer from infectious diseases, constantly feel tired, broken, they often have a headache and muscle and joint pain.
Hypothyroidism during initial examination is very difficult to diagnose immediately for several reasons. Firstly, this disease does not have inherent only pronounced symptoms. Secondly, the manifestations of the disease are very similar to the symptoms of other psychosomatic diseases. And thirdly, there is no clear connection between the amount of hormones determined in the analysis and the manifestations of the symptoms of the disease. With the same level of hormones in some patients, all the symptoms of the disease are pronounced, while in others they are generally absent. The most typical symptoms of this disease are expressed in the following forms:
- The face of the patients becomes swollen, puffy. Swollen hands and feet, as well as eyelids. All this is due to fluid retention in the tissues of the body.
- Skin color changes - it becomes yellowish.
- Due to the fact that the hormonal background of patients is disturbed, they have dry skin and mucous membranes.
- Patients complain of tingling in the muscles and even of pain in them.
- In patients, the hair becomes dry and brittle, and then begins to fall out.
- Patients are depressed, indifferent to the environment, they are characterized by apathy.
- In the most severe stages of the disease, patients become slowed, their voice changes.
- Patients often begin to hear worse.
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Due to the fact that the metabolic processes in the body of such patients are reduced, there is a slight increase in body weight. If the time does not begin to treat hypothyroidism, in patients with congenital form irreversible changes occur in the nervous system. Often in men and women, sexual desire is reduced. Women have cases of menstrual irregularities, in addition, there may be difficulties with bearing a child, and sometimes infertility. Quite often the increase in the level of cholesterol in the results of laboratory tests indicates the presence of hypothyroidism.
3 Treatment methods
The emergence and further development of this disease is facilitated not only by internal pathological processes, but also by external factors such as exposure to various poisons and irradiation, uncontrolled use of certain drugs. The disease can also occur due to irregularities in the diet.
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For the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, first of all, laboratory tests are performed, during which the level of certain hormones is determined to diagnose the state of the thyroid gland.
A detailed blood test is performed to determine the level of cholesterol and lipids. To determine the size of the thyroid gland and identify pathologies in its structure, ultrasound of this organ and a biopsy are prescribed.
After laboratory diagnosis is diagnosed, treatment of hypothyroidism in the form of replacement therapy is immediately prescribed to replace the amount of missing hormones. Often a small course of taking medications is sufficient to treat the disease. If the thyroid gland has been removed, the patient has to take medicine all his life. In the case of hypothyroidism due to malnutrition, patients are prescribed a regimen with the use of foods in which there is a lot of iodine.
To prevent the development of hypothyroidism( ICD-10 code - E03 or E03.9), it is necessary to eat fully and be examined regularly by a doctor to diagnose the disease at an early stage. In areas with iodine deficiency, a large number of iodine-containing foods must be eaten. Do not forget about the need to support the body with vitamins and amino acids. Only a balanced diet can prevent the development of this disease.