A common type of sarcoma. Among malignant soft tissue formations, the fibrous histiocytoma occupies 40%.
The tumor is characterized by a slow growth, but can develop unexpected jumps in development. With this disease, early diagnostics and timely competent treatment are very important.
Types of malignant fibrotic histiocytoma
Tumor by histological composition has four variations.
There are atypical cells - irregular structures that have lost properties and a connection with the tissue of which they were originally part.
Cells are able to join together in huge bizarre aggregates with several cores.
Huge cells are also distinguished by the presence of droplets of fat in the cytoplasm. Such inclusions give the appearance of foam.
In the body of the tumor, there are sites similar in composition to the pleomorphic variety of the fibrous histiocytoma. Half of the tumor has a gelatinous character.
The tumor body is a disorderly accumulation of cells similar to histiocytes - epithelioid cubic and spindle-shaped cells resembling fibroblasts.
This type of formation is also called xanthomarkoma or malignant xanthogranulem. The tumor has a large number of cells with fatty inclusions in the cytoplasm.
Foamy cells in their majority contain hyperchromic nuclei. Leukocytes and neutrophils create a dense tumor infiltrate.
Stroma of formation is amorphous, collagen fibers contain very little. Sometimes a network of blood vessels arises in the tumor tissue.
The formation contains the same components as pleomorphic and myxoid tumors. The difference is that there are giant cells that look like osteoclasts.
In the cytoplasm of these cells there are many small nuclei and there may be fatty inclusions. In a giant cell type of fibrous histiocytoma, cells form nodes around which fibrous fibers of dense composition are clustered with inclusions of blood vessels.
In the nodes occur such phenomena:
- may occur focal osteoid.
Giant cells, similar to osteoclasts, are localized in the central part of the tumor. Osteoids are located on the periphery of the body of the node.
Education is a node that does not have sharp edges. Small hemorrhages are observed on the surface of the tumor.
Photo of fibrotic soft tissue histiocytoma
Places where the tumor is most common:
- internal organs,
- retroperitoneal space.
Tumor during the year is able to give metastasis to such organs:
- lymph nodes,
- lungs - the most frequent variant,
- retroperitoneal space.
Reasons for the formation of
Specialists are not ready to give exact information about what specific factors cause the appearance of this type of malignant tumor.
Presumably such processes cause:
- Predisposition to oncology, inherited.
- Consequences of injuries in soft tissues.
- Due to the effect of ionizing radiation.
- Decreased human immunity, due to:
- poor environmental conditions,
- chronic diseases,
- bad habits.
- Activities related to the need for contact with carcinogens.
In case of bone damage, malignant formation manifests itself through such signs:
- A tumor appears which can be detected by palpation.
- Presence of a pain signal.
- In a joint located near the tumor, functional disorders are indicated.
- A fracture of a bone affected by a sarcoma is possible.
Formations that occur in soft tissues may be located close to the skin surface or have deep localization.
In the case of a more superficial location of the tumor, the following symptoms appear:
- A neoplasm with a diameter of up to ten centimeters is probed.
- Skin color at the site of the pathology is reddish.
If the tumor is deep in the body, then it signals through symptoms:
- weight loss,
- decline of strength,
- rise in temperature,
- if abdominal education is a pain in this area,
- malfunctions in work in tumor neighboring organs.
If signs of neoplasm develop, you need to do a comprehensive examination as quickly as possible.
- Radiography shows the state of the bone system.
- Ultrasound examination is a necessary procedure if there is a need for examination of internal organs. The procedure allows you to determine the possible metastasis in the lymph nodes.
- Magnetic resonance tomography provides detailed information on the state of soft tissues;orientation, size and extent of tumor spread.
- Biopsy is a very important analysis when diagnosing. The tumor biomaterial is examined under a microscope. There are two ways of sampling tissue education:
- closed - the material for the study is obtained with a thin needle that penetrates into the tumor,
- open - is separated under anesthesia a small part of the tumor.
Methods of treatment of ZFG
The treatment of fibroid malignant histiocytoma is complex. This disease is formidable and the treatment should be performed by experienced specialists.
Methods, their combination and nuances of procedures are selected depending on the degree of malignancy, size and localization of the compaction.
Treatment includes procedures:
- The most effective method is surgical removal of the seal. Excision of the tumor is done with the capture of healthy tissues.
In case of damage to the bone, sometimes it is necessary to do an amputation of the limb.
- With large tumor sizes, especially if its spread makes removal impossible, chemotherapy is used.
- To weaken pathogenic cells do laser irradiation before surgery and after the procedure.
Observations show that one surgical intervention, not supported by additional procedures, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, yields much lower results.
Factors worsening the outcome of treatment:
- Not a myxoid variety of compaction.
- Tumor reached a large size.
- The presence of metastases in the body.
- Degree of malignancy of the formation. Necrotic changes in the tumor.
On average, patients who have been diagnosed and treated with myxomatous education live up to ten years. In the remaining patients with a fibrous histiocytoma of a malignant nature, their life span is usually reduced to five years.
Such a prognosis because this kind of sarcoma rushes to penetrate into other tissues, recurs.