What is prostate adenoma in men: symptoms and signs, causes, treatment, PSA index

When patients belonging to the male part of the population start having problems with urination, then there is a suspicion that changes in the prostate create obstacles.

Pathology can be benign, then it's prostate adenoma. If the cells are malignant, then it's cancer of the body.

It is necessary in this case to consult a specialist, without delaying the visit at a later time. In the early stages, specialists can provide quality assistance. The patient will have the opportunity to prevent complications of the disease.

What is prostate adenoma in men?

In the normal state, the prostate has a size that correlates with the chestnut. An important organ for the functioning of the male body, participates in the creation of sperm, ensures its normal viscosity.

There is an iron under the bladder, the fact that it covers the entire ureter when it leaves the bladder makes the urination process dependent on the prostate condition.

Therefore, if changes occur in the gland and it begins to increase its parameters, the ureteral lumen automatically decreases. Benign change in the prostate is called an adenoma. This pathology ranks first among urological diseases. More than half of men in the age limit over the age of forty suffer from prostate adenoma.

Difference from prostatitis

Iron is mainly affected by diseases, which can be divided into two large groups:

  • tumor pathology: adenoma and cancer,
  • inflammatory diseases - prostatitis.

Prostatitis is when inflammation occurs in the prostate tissue. Provoke it may infection or other reasons associated with lifestyle or decreased immunity.

A common symptom between prostatitis and adenoma is that they are both the cause for increasing the size of the gland, and, therefore, cause problems with urination.

The photo shows prostate adenoma

The pathology caused by the adenoma is not acute, especially at the onset of the disease.

In adenoma, there are no signs characteristic of prostatitis:

  • fever,
  • sharp pain in the prostate at palpation,
  • can be discharge from the urinary character, indicating inflammation.

Causes of the disease

Exact reasons for what happens adenoma of the prostate are not identified. It is noted that some factors coincide with the detection of this problem, namely:

  • Prostate enlargement occurs mostly in men aged forty-five years. Therefore, the age index related to this threshold and older is considered to be a risk factor.
  • The second reason has a connection with the first. Specialists associate proliferation of the prostate with a change in the hormonal background. This phenomenon is observed in men with the advent of the elderly.
  • Psychoemotional loads of in combination with age over forty-five can affect men's health.

Controversial issues between specialists are the assertion of a link between the occurrence of the disease and the presence of such factors:

  • smoking, excessive drinking,
  • previously transmitted infections or inflammatory diseases,
  • intensity of sexual life.

More and more researchers say that these facts do not affect the mechanism of proliferation of the prostate.

Symptoms and first signs of

Due to the fact that prostate adenoma in men, enlarging in volume, produces pressing of the ureter, it inevitably creates obstacles during urination.

There may be such signs:

  • After the urge, the patient feels the need to immediately urinate.
  • Urination should be done often and in small portions.
  • At night, the patient wakes up several times because of the need to empty the bladder.
  • During emiction, emptying is not achieved at a time, breaks occur, the resumption of the jet occurs a few minutes after the interruption.
  • It is characteristic that the jet becomes thinner, interrupted, the head is small, and unstable during the time of urination.
  • The difficulty with the release of urine through the ureter makes it necessary to strain the muscles.
  • If the bladder is full, then the patient may have a situation where he is unable to wait and hold urine.

What are the consequences?

Complications can occur with prostate adenoma in the event that additional factors trigger an even greater narrowing of the ureteral lumen.

Then it is possible that the patient will have a situation where it is impossible to empty the bladder, there will be an acute retention of urine.

The condition will be accompanied by symptoms:

  • in the abdomen painful sensations,
  • the excruciating urge to urinate.

Factors that may cause an exacerbation may be:

  • the need for bed rest,
  • constipation,
  • bladder emptying with delays,
  • hypothermia.

Acute situation requires immediate hospitalization.

Can prostate adenoma develop into a cancerous tumor?

Prostate enlargement associated with the development of adenoma, has a benign character. This means that the expanded tissue does not give metastasis, does not spread to neighboring organs.

There is also no quality inherent in cancers - through lymph and blood there is no expansion of the field of action of the disease.

There was an opinion that adenoma is a precursor of cancer, and that a benign tumor has the prospect of developing into a malignant tumor. To date, it has been revealed that these are two different diseases. There are patients who have this and that.

Degrees and stages of

As the prostate adenoma develops, three stages are distinguished:

  1. Compensated - characterized by some enlargement of the gland. The prostate has initial changes and therefore the has minor consequences: the
    • borders have clear outlines,
    • does not have pain when palpated,
    • has a dense elastic body,
    • the midline furrow is detected by palpation,
    • does not cause urinary bladder retention when urinatingleft the rest.

    The stage of the disease after the onset of adenoma development can last up to three years.

  2. The subcompensated - an increase in the prostate has reached levels when it began to have a profound effect on the function of the bladder removing urine from the body. Disorders occur:
    • bladder release occurs in batches,
    • bladder walls increase in thickness,
    • part of urine retention,
    • with bladder overflow, involuntary discharge of urine may occur,
    • urine may be cloudy and contain impurities of blood.
  3. Decompensated is the highest degree of adenoma development. Manifestations:
    • urine is delayed in large volume,
    • urine excretion occurs dropwise, the
    • bladder stretches out because it is often overcrowded;
    • urinary retention worsens the kidneys.
    • The patient has symptoms:
      • constipation,
      • weight loss,
      • appetite impairment,
      • dry mouth,
      • anemia,
      • poor health,
      • in the air that exhaled the patient, there is a smell of urine.

How to diagnose?

The specialist analyzes complaints of the patient and conducts a palpation test . Initial data on the possible increase in the prostate are thus obtained. To determine the diagnosis, the following diagnostic methods are used in men:

  • Transrectal ultrasound - shows which part of the prostate has increased, the overall picture,
  • of the ultrasound of the bladder - the condition of the organ determines the extent to which the urine retention occurs;
  • Analyzes for adenoma:
    • for PSA level - determined, there is a suspicion of malignancy of neoplastic cells,
    • general analysis of urine and blood - provides information on the presence of possible inflammatory processes and other abnormalities in health;
    • determine the level of creatinine - to understand the state of the upper urinary tract;
  • method of uroflowmetry - adds informativity in the diagnosis of prostate adenoma, determining the violation of urination.


Prostate produces a specific protein, the level of which can be determined through a blood test. The blood is drawn from the vein.

Situation analysis is carried out according to three criteria:

  1. For prostate adenoma, the PSA value should be within the normal range. Excess from normal PSA levels indicates a possible prostate cancer. The normal PSA value is different for different age categories:
    Age, years Permissible PSA, ng / mL
    to fifty to 2.5
    from fifty to sixty 3.5 ÷ 4.5
    for sixty to 6.5
  2. The ratio of free PSA to totalthe amount should not differ from the proportion of 1: 10.
  3. It is necessary that the density of the PSA in the material selected for analysis is in accordance with the norm. This means that its value is 0.75 ng / ml and less.

Volume of

In adenoma, the prostate increases in volume. How much the organ has increased corresponds to the worsening of the patient's condition and the change in the tactics of his treatment.

In patients with prostate adenoma, this classification of pathology is observed, associated with changes in its size:

  • 30 ÷ 55 mm - conservative treatment possible,
  • 40 ÷ 60 mm - conservative treatment is also recommended, removal of part of the prostate can be recommended, endoscopicoperation,
  • 60 ÷ 80 mm - an open operation is performed.

How to treat the disease?

The most effective way to treat prostate adenoma is to reduce its size in an operative way. There are different methods, including low-traumatic.

Operative intervention

  • Minimally invasive operations involve transporting the device to the site of operation through the urethra.
  • Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate is a modern method. A high power laser removes excess tissue that enters the bladder cavity. Then these remnants are removed by the endomorphicator. An effective procedure, it is assessed by utility at the level of an open operation. The plus is the absence of consequences and complications that accompany the open implementation.
  • Transurethral resection of the prostate is performed by equipment that passes through the ureter, removes part of the prostate tissue under the supervision of special equipment.

The picture shows the operation of TOUR with adenoma in the prostate

  • An open operation is shown in very neglected cases when other methods can not be applied.

Other methods

  • Thermotherapy method - electrodes generate radio waves that act destructively on tissue cells. The waves are directed to the site where an unwanted enlargement of the prostate size occurs.
  • Baloon dilatation - a balloon is installed in the urethra, which inflates and expands the ureter in this place.
  • Cryodestruction - removal of prostatic sites, affecting them by low temperature.
  • Focused ultrasound.
  • Installation in a place where the lumen is narrowed, special stents.

Medication Therapy

Drugs can be used for conservative treatment in the early stages of prostate adenoma.


  • Blockers - oppress the production of dihydrotestosterone, which makes possible a slight decrease in the prostate and stops the process of increasing it.
  • Alpha-blockers - improve urination with adenoma, facilitate this process.


The diet for prostate adenoma is based on the fact that weight and constipation should not be allowed to increase. Therefore it is better to eat food:

  • as much as possible products containing fiber,
  • is good to include salads from vegetables and fruits,
  • to eat raw pumpkin seeds,
  • to reduce the intake of animal fats,
  • to enrich the diet with the presence of unsaturated fatty acids: vegetable oils and products containing omega-3.

Minimize or abstain altogether:

  • Adopting easily digestible carbohydrates,
  • red meat,
  • byproducts,
  • spicy seasonings,
  • dishes from legumes,
  • products containing unacceptable additives;
  • rich meat and fish broths,
  • canned meat or fish,
  • beer( alcoholic beverages),
  • chocolate.

The diet should be designed to be balanced. Nutrition, which is recommended by a patient with an adenoma, is suitable for anyone who takes care of their health.

Probability of recurrence after treatment of

After surgery for prostate adenoma, recurrences of inflammatory nature are possible.

In this regard, during the postoperative period, the precautionary measures that the doctor will designate:

  • should not be overworked,
  • should not be supercooled,
  • must comply with the diet,
  • should be supervised by a specialist.


If a patient has an adenoma of the prostate, then he should avoid any heat exposure in the prostate:

  • do not heat up,
  • electromagnet action, vibration exclude;
  • not bathe in the bath,
  • is not permissible in the prostate massage area.


The disease can be adjusted at an early stage. The quality of life in case of neglected cases significantly worsens, there is a danger of complications. In the later stages of development, surgery can not be avoided.


Precautions include activities that promote a healthy lifestyle:

  • moderate stresses that make prevention from congestion;
  • compliance with the diet,
  • a man should undergo preventive examinations with a specialist, especially in the category with an age rating over forty-five years;
  • it is important not to increase body weight, because it is fraught with an increase in the size of the prostate.
  • try not to create situations where:
    • prostate is amenable to hypothermia,
    • bladder is filled with more measures,
    • constipation.

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