Histological examination is a diagnostic technique in which tissues are examined by microscopic examination. They are taken for analysis by biopsy from a pathological or healthy area, and sometimes internal organs are used. This type of diagnosis plays the greatest role in a variety of tumors. And today we will tell you whether errors are possible in the study of histological material, what are its main methods, and also about how the procedure goes.
What is a histological study of
For diagnosis it is enough to take a small sample to determine exactly the disease that triggered the pathological process, its nature, stage, other important details. The study itself includes a biopsy and a direct examination of the seized material.
This method of diagnosis is used in cases where other types of examinations do not work even in a complex. Often confined to a single brushstroke, but in the whole list of diseases it is necessary to carry out a full-fledged procedure.
About what a histological study will tell this video:
To whom it is assigned
Valuable research in the most diverse fields of medicine. So, they use it to select the appropriate treatment program for the diseases of the following sections:
It is necessary in thoracic and abdominal surgery.
Why do such an investigation?
Histological examination is assigned only in a specific list of cases. Basically, it is required to clarify the diagnosis, but there are other situations when it is necessary:
- Differential diagnosis.
- Establishing the need for an operation.
- Study of the dynamic growth of neoplasm.
- Monitoring the effectiveness of treatment, identifying changes in the picture of the disease.
- Determination of the extent of tumor growth.
- Help in detecting cancer at an early stage.
Previous study of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Do not do without it and the process of cancer treatment, because the procedure helps to control the course of recovery.
Next we will tell you about the types of histological studies and modern methods of taking material for them.
Types of procedure
In order to obtain the material intended for research, it must be separated from internal tissues or organs. A biopsy with histological examination is exposed to the skin, bronchial mucosa or intestines, lymph nodes, muscles. The take is made by several types of biopsy:
- Spiked .By means of the tool the necessary quantity of a fabric is bored.
- Excision .The material is taken at the time of surgery.
- Puncture .Use different designs of needles, which pierce neoplasms and gain pathological infiltrate.
- Precision .Part of the affected organ or tissue is excised for examination.
- Curettage of cavities .Used as a standard method for osteomyelitis or cervix, other cavities( including those formed by the pathological process).Trephine biopsy .Used to draw liquids from the bone.
The material can be taken by flushing or brushing, as well as by an open method. For accuracy at the time of the biopsy, ultrasound or X-ray, MRI, is used.
About the methods of histological research will tell this video:
- pathological processes in the lungs, retroperitoneal space, in the digestive tract;
- of the thyroid cyst;
- dermatitis( including purpurea, follicular, dying, infectious, bullous)
- skin erosion;
- cystic acne;
- Norwegian type of scabies;
- tumor of the kidney or parenchyma;
- pericardial effusion, ascites;
- of vitiligo;
- for children's eczema;
- primary focal lesions;
- hydradenitis of the scalp;
- pathological diffuse or focal processes;
The decision on the need for histological examination in other diseases will be decided by the doctor. However, the patient himself can refuse it.
Contraindications for carrying out
- unconscious state;
- intolerance to anesthetics;
- lack of consent;
- bleeding disorder;
- threat of termination of pregnancy.
To the relative list of contraindications include:
- liver cirrhosis,
- heart failure.
procedure safe? Biopsy under MRI or X-ray control is completely safe.
On preparation for tests and histological methods of research, read below.
Fluid and food should be discontinued 8 hours before the biopsy. At the preparation stage it is important to consult a doctor to get the appropriate recommendations. You may need to stop taking certain medications or adjust their dosage. To inform the doctor about all medications, as well as about the diseases, the presence of allergies, the transferred interventions.
Women should additionally be informed of pregnancy, as some biopsy specimens for histological examination are prohibited during this period. There is no specific training.
On the conduct of histological studies, read on.
How is the
procedure? Diagnosis is taken( biopsy) of the material. Further, the material is immediately delivered for histological examination, but it is permissible to place it in a solution of formalin and alcohol if this process is postponed. The amount of liquid directly depends on the size of the tissue taken. The number should be 30 times larger.
The histological examination itself can be preceded by a cytological test. It is preliminary, but more rapid.
The procedure for taking and correctness of its conduct plays a huge role. Thus, an incorrect intake of fluid leads to a mistaken diagnosis.
The interpretation of the results of the histological examination of the biopsy material is discussed below.
Explanation of the results of
For the analysis, the material is provided to the pathologist or pathomorphologist. The histological examination can be divided into macroscopic and microscopic diagnostics. In the first case, determine the color of the tissue, its size, what is it different from the norm, are there any deviations( germination, substitution, softening, etc.).A more detailed diagnosis is carried out by means of microscopy.
When decoding, other clinical data are taken into account, the overall picture of the disease, the analysis indicators. All this is usually enough to make an accurate diagnosis, but sometimes all the data is not enough to determine only one disease. In this case, the doctor notes the features of the pathological changes that affected the tissue, which will help in differential diagnosis. If the case is controversial, conduct medical consultations. The decryption time is 1-2 weeks.
The price for the histological examination of the biopsy material is indicated below.
The average cost of the procedure
The price of a histological examination depends directly on the complexity. So, if you need a biopsy, the cost can be 4 thousand rubles.
If procedure of complexity does not represent, then it will be necessary to pay for diagnostics 1500-2000 rubles. This is the cost of a histological examination of the biopsy specimen.
About the difference between cytological and histological research will tell this video: