Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells that make up the tissue or organ due to their division. This pathology occurs under the influence of various factors that stimulate cell division. These are: loss of part of the organ, tissue, tissue growth stimulants, antigenic stimuli, oncogenic substances, etc.
In the pancreas, there may be hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans, when the number and size of cells that produce insulin increase. At a norm of 225 μm, the diameter of islet cells increases to 250 μm. In newborn infants, pancreatic cell hyperplasia can be caused by maternal diabetes and hereditary factors.
Congenital pancreatic insufficiency - hypoplasia - is an underdevelopment of the body( Schwakhman-Bodian syndrome).Pathology can be hereditary in nature, and may be a consequence of neutropenia, pancytopenia, metaphyseal dysostosis and dwarf growth.
The underdevelopment of this organ can be total in nature - when the size of the organ is much lower than normal, but its anatomical departments are preserved, and partial - when the organ has only a head, but there is no body and tail. This developmental defect can be both isolated and combined with anomalies in the development of other organs and systems.
The clinical picture of pancreatic hypoplasia is manifested by diabetes mellitus, abundant fatty stool, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, a typical abdominal pancreatic pain syndrome. There may be infections of the respiratory tract and skin, sinusitis, otitis of the lungs and more serious pathologies.
Diagnosis of hypoplasia using ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, etc. Treatment - with the help of substitution therapy. With chronic pancreatitis against the background of this pathology, endoscopic treatment methods are used.
Hypertrophy is a pathology in which tissues or organs are excessively large, but not at the expense of the number of cells, but due to their volume. In the case of the pancreas, hypertrophy can be caused by the influence of chemical agents.
In hypertrophied pancreatic cells due to a rich endoplasmic reticulum and a large number of ribosomes, protein synthesis is enhanced. Therefore, we can say that the increase in the activity of the affected organ occurs due to the growth in the number of specific formations. In one case, already existing cells grow, and in the other, new ones are formed.