Cerebral atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels: treatment, symptoms, drugs

Atherosclerosis refers to systemic processes, that is, it develops gradually in the entire circulatory system. However, in some cases, the predominance of cerebral vascular lesions is possible. Such a pathology is called cerebral cardiosclerosis and in due course is fraught with a series of complications for the patient. The most fatal of such consequences is a fatal outcome as a result of a sudden stroke.

Features of the ailment

The mechanism of development of this pathology is often associated with impaired metabolism of lipids and proteins. Under the influence of this factor, the destruction of the vessels begins with the products of decay. Their injury predisposes to deposition and a gradual increase in fat in the cracks. Subsequently, it hardens, forming an atherosclerotic plaque.

Men are most susceptible to this type of atherosclerosis. This is especially expressed in the fact that at most of the stronger sex atherosclerotic changes are observed earlier than in women almost for 10 years.

The latter, by the way, the probability of the appearance of the disease is an order of magnitude higher in the climacteric period.

More details about the features, symptoms and treatment of cerebral atherosclerosis will be reported by the specialist in the following video:

Forms

If the classification is carried out according to the principle of flow, then cerebral cardiosclerosis can be of several forms:

  • intermittent,
  • acute,
  • slow progressing,
  • malignant.

Cerebral atherosclerosis is divided into a stenosing and non-stenosing form.

  • When localizing an atherosclerotic plaque on the wall of the vessel, not significantly affecting the blood flow, it is said about non-stenotic sclerosis.
  • Accordingly, with stenosing the lumen is closed by 50% or more, which causes a number of changes and provokes numerous clinical manifestations.
  • And if the vessel is clogged almost completely, atherosclerosis is called obliterating. His forecast is the most dangerous.

Degrees

There are 3 degrees of pathology:

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  • Initial. Has the smallest list of disorders, and clinical symptoms are rare, often only after provoking factors.
  • 2 degree. From the functional changes in the vessels there is a gradual flow to the morphological ones. Symptomatology is already stable.
  • 3 degree of cerebral arteriosclerosis. As a result of frequent ischemic attacks, necrotic foci appear in some parts of the brain. Over time, these areas are replaced by connective tissue cells, and this leads to the loss of those functions for which this or that area is responsible. Symptoms bother the patient almost constantly. Disability is a fairly frequent outcome of the last degree of cerebral atherosclerosis.

Causes of

In general, the causes of appearance with other forms of atherosclerosis are quite similar. To them it is customary to include:

  • diseases that cause damage to arterial walls;
  • physical inactivity;
  • dysfunction of the liver, expressed in violation of the synthesis of cholesterol;
  • food that is rich in fatty, salty, spicy;
  • weighed down by heredity;
  • obesity;
  • hypertension;
  • chronic stress and overexertion;
  • retirement age;
  • diabetes mellitus.
  • hormonal disorders.

Symptoms of

Symptomatic symptoms do not appear for a long time. The emergence of a clinical picture is associated with dysfunction of different parts of the brain, which appears as a result of poor blood circulation. The most characteristic symptoms for atherosclerosis of the cerebral form are the following:

  • poor sleep,
  • inadequate response to external stimuli,
  • deterioration of mind and memory,
  • low stress resistance,
  • depressiveness,
  • migraine,
  • low work capacity,
  • tinnitus,
  • sweating,
  • tremblingin the extremities or weakness,
  • hyperemia of the face.

Diagnosis

Diagnostic methods play an important role, because according to ICD-10, it is possible to establish the diagnosis of "cerebral atherosclerosis" accurately only after conducting a full-scale study. The list of test methods includes:

  • Delivery of blood for lipid analysis and detection of its coagulability.
  • US using dopplerographic examination. It is necessary to investigate extra-cerebral arteries.
  • EEG. Helps identify cortical abnormalities and detect their severity.
  • Transcranial Doppler. Using this method, the vessels inside the brain are examined through the temporal fossa.
  • MRI. The technique sometimes implies the use of a special contrast. Such a substance will illuminate all pathological areas on the monitor.
  • Angiography of is also performed with a contrast medium, but in this case after insertion into the lesion the result is checked by X-ray examination.

The two latest survey methods play a special role, since they have the greatest diagnostic significance. About the treatment of atherosclerosis of cerebral arteries read below.

Treatment

Therapeutic

Therapies and medications for the therapy of cerebral arteriosclerosis are sufficient. However, tactics necessarily involves several therapeutic measures, starting with recommendations for the notorious conduct of a healthy lifestyle, and ending with a correction of the usual mode of rest and work.

  • If the work is connected with negative factors, be it noise or constant overvoltage, then it should be replaced.
  • It is also worthwhile to provide extra sleep throughout the day.
  • It is mandatory to perform various physical exercises on a daily basis. So, it is easy enough for exercise exercise exercise, but even they are preferably replaced by a light walk. Any bad habits need to be removed from your life.
  • The diet also takes not the last place in the treatment of atherosclerosis. Its main principles and recommendations for building a diet have been given in the section below, which is fully devoted to this issue.

About the treatment of cerebral atherosclerosis drugs will be discussed further.

Medication

Assign any medication only after carrying out detailed studies. Moreover, the constant monitoring of a doctor is one of the main conditions for treating such a serious disease. Most often for therapy, the following drugs are selected:

  • Lipid-lowering drugs .Their effect is aimed at preventing further progression of vascular pathology. Among this category of drugs, the greatest preference is given to statins. They will have to be taken throughout life, since without supportive therapy, atherosclerosis is able to return. Constantly conduct a lipidogram of blood, which allows you to adjust their dosage.
  • Hypotensive drugs .They are one of the foundations of the entire treatment of cerebral atherosclerosis. By stabilizing blood pressure, drugs of this group significantly reduce the possibility of a stroke.
  • Desaggregants .Are aimed at reducing the risk of thrombosis. Important for the prevention of complications.
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs .Affect the vascular wall, strengthening it and preventing it from changing.
  • vasodilators can restore blood circulation. Very important for reducing clinical manifestations.

Operative intervention

The operation is usually indicated for cerebral atherosclerosis of stenotic form. It is carried out in an open manner, since the main purpose of the intervention is to remove the plaque. Often other surgical operations are subjected to extracranial arteries.

  1. At the time of the intervention, the affected area is opened.
  2. After this procedure is carried out, which is called endarterectomy: the plaque is removed directly together with the internal choroid, as the latter is damaged and it is likely that re-deposition of fat is possible.
  3. If the stenosis is long enough, prosthetics is indicated. Bypassing the affected blood area, a special tube will be stretched, which in the future will perform all its functions.
  4. After suturing( skin and vascular) for the next day, drainage is established. Intervention is necessarily performed with the use of UZDG vessels( i.e., Doppler ultrasound examination).Constant monitoring helps to avoid mistakes and reduces the likelihood of further complications.

Another surgical intervention is carried out using special cylinders and stents. They are administered by means of a catheter into the artery( operation is possible even on intracranial vessels), and then the balloon swells in the narrowing region. Thus, the plaque is crushed, and the vessel becomes completely passable. To maintain a normal diameter of the artery, a special stent can be inserted into it. This type of intervention has its own nuances and requires competent therapy after the operation.

On whether cerebral atherosclerosis is subject to treatment with folk remedies, we will tell you further.

This video will describe how surgical intervention is shown in cerebral atherosclerosis:

Folk remedies

Folk methods of treatment can be used for cerebral atherosclerosis, but do not forget about a sensible approach. Therapy should include exactly the medicines, since the recipes of traditional medicine do not have the desired effect.

If the doctor resolves, then they can be used as an additional method of treatment. We need only remember that a categorical ban means a ban! Sometimes medicines simply do not combine with broths of herbs. In such cases it is especially important to listen to the doctor.

The following recipes are effective:

  1. Garlic, ginger and alfalfa will be needed for the first remedy. Of these, decoctions are prepared separately, and then they are mixed in a ratio of 7.5: 2: 3.The agent is used only once a day and only 1 tsp. The course has a length of 3 months.
  2. Rosehip was ground( 100 g) and poured berries with vodka( 0.5 ml).After several days of insisting, the drug is consumed three times a day, dropping about 20 drops.
  3. This recipe also includes rose hips, but it is indicated for those who do not want to use an infusion of alcohol. Then you should collect raspberry leaves, combine them with rose hips and make tea from them.
  4. Garlic for alcohol also gives good results. To do this, it is cleaned, slightly press down the denticles before the appearance of the juice and put into vodka. Dilute every time a remedy is needed in 1 tbsp.l.water, and drip into it should not more than 5 drops.

Prevention

All the preventive measures listed below are suitable not only for the prevention of the disease, but also for its treatment. Often, the pathology manifests itself after a long calm, therefore, in addition to medication, one must also apply independent efforts, since this will prolong remission. What should be done for quality prevention?

  • sleep,
  • monitor blood and blood sugar level,
  • shorten working period,
  • avoid noise,
  • visit sanatorium,
  • eliminate bad habits,
  • physical activity,
  • take vitamins.

Special attention is important to give their health to those who have relatives with a similar pathology of blood vessels.

Diet for cerebral atherosclerosis

Revision of nutrition in cerebral atherosclerosis should not result in a debilitating diet. It is enough to consume the right amount of calories, replacing potentially unnecessary products with useful ones. Thus, vegetable fats can successfully replace animals. They, moreover, are more useful and even their excess will not contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis of the brain.

  • Carbohydrates should not be cut at all. Because the root of evil lies in products that are rich in "empty" carbohydrates. Usually such products are also abundant in a huge number of animal fats. All kinds of snacks, pastries, sweets and other - this is subject to a categorical exception .The benefits of such snacks do not bring.
  • Carbohydrates can not be excluded exceptionally, which are digested slowly and give us energy throughout the day. These are different porridges( except for manna).The most useful is buckwheat. Vegetables also form the basis of the diet, although they refer to carbohydrates. But these carbohydrates are useful and do not harm the body. Of course, with the right preparation. After all, if you make a vitamin salad from a few vegetables and flavor them with mayonnaise, then there is no question of any benefit to the speech.
  • Protein food is the basis of nutrition in order to avoid atherosclerosis, not only the vessels of the brain, but the entire circulatory system. This variety of sea fish, meat, legumes, sour-milk products.
  • Low-fat food, rich in minerals, nutrients, vitamins - this is what the body needs both during the treatment of atherosclerosis, and as its prevention.

Complications of

The list of complications in cerebral atherosclerosis is very large. Pathological changes in blood circulation lead to numerous problems. The brain cells in this case are actively dying off, which entails a number of negative consequences, up to the loss of some important functions.

The greatest danger is a stroke. The rupture of the aorta also for the most part causes death. Aneurysms are generally considered to be one of the worst complications of the disease.

In the presence of certain concomitant diseases( for example, diabetes), the risk of complications and their fatal outcome is very high. The patient's condition worsens also because of the rapid development of atherosclerosis. All this can lead to complications such as:

  1. of the lower extremities, down to ulcers and gangrene;
  2. IHD and heart attack;
  3. angiopathy, which gradually leads to blindness;
  4. encephalopathy;
  5. ischemia;
  6. Nephropathy.

Forecast

With timely and properly selected therapy it is possible to live to a very old age, but we must not forget that cerebral atherosclerosis is one of the favorable factors for the development of complications, among which there are life-threatening. It is complications that pose a threat to life.

The forecast is also based on individual factors. So, for some patients, even the first manifestation of the disease can become fatal, while others not only live long, but also remain able to work.

More useful information on such an ailment as cerebral atherosclerosis is contained in the video below:

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