Atherosclerosis of the heart vessels: causes, treatment, symptoms and diagnosis

Cardiovascular atherosclerosis refers to chronic diseases and significantly worsens its performance. Completely get rid of the already developed disease is impossible, and plaques are often carried by the bloodstream throughout the body, creating a serious danger of ischemia of different organs.

Vascular deposits reduce their elasticity, and if they increase in size, this significantly lowers blood flow velocity and simultaneously increases blood pressure( BP).It is atherosclerosis that can be called the main cause of the development of myocardial infarction, GLC and IHD.

Features of the disease

It is noted that the disease ceases to be completely diseases of people aged, and the initial deposits in the vessels are possible even in childhood. Sometimes pathology even becomes the reason for which a person loses his ability to work. In such cases, a person will have a disability group with coronary artery atherosclerosis. Invalidation occurs as a result of the development of a number of complications, including strokes, heart attacks.

Cholesterol is not transferred to the body in a free form, but it is enclosed in lipoproteins. The normal content of useful cholesterol is good for health, but as soon as the substance starts to flow in large quantities from poor-quality harmful food, it begins to pose a threat. Since the organs are not able to quickly cope with its excess, its deposition begins on the walls of the vessels.

More details about the peculiarities of such a disease as atherosclerosis of the vessels will be described by the following video:

Stages of

There are several stages of atherosclerosis development:

  • 1 stage. There is a gradual decrease in blood flow velocity, microcracks form on the walls, which in general creates favorable conditions for the beginning of the deposition of fat in these areas. The heart vessels are the most affected. Further, the wall is split more strongly, and the produced enzymes are unable to cope with the deposits. With the weakening of protective mechanisms, the fat stain grows. The time cycle of its formation and transition to another stage is different.
  • 2 stage - liposclerosis .The new connective tissue continues to grow fatty tissue. At this stage of development, atherosclerotic plaques excellently dissolve. The main danger with liposclerosis is not only in the high probability of thrombus, but also in the possibility of rupture and subsequent blockage of the arteries.
  • Atherocalcinosis is the last stage of the disease. At this stage, the plaque begins to thicken, a gradual deposition of calcium occurs in it. The lumen narrows, and the thrombus continues to grow, deforming and the vessel. As never before, the risk of occlusion( i.e., overlapping) by parts of a ruptured plaque with subsequent necrosis and sometimes gangrene in the area where it occurred.

WHO classification

There is also a classification of the disease carried out by WHO.

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The opinion of doctors. .. & gt; & gt;

  • Atherosclerosis is subdivided by localization, as well as by the method of occurrence.
  • The origin of the pathology may be:
    • hemodynamic( as a result of hypertension or vascular disorders),
    • metabolic( as a result of heredity, acquired metabolic problems and endocrine disorders), and
    • mixed.

Causes of atherosclerosis of the heart vessels

Many causes of atherosclerosis, at least partially, but can be eliminated. So, its development can begin even in childhood, depending on how many predisposing factors the person will have. These are:

  1. Diabetes and obesity. The presence of these factors increases the probability of pathology by several times.
  2. Dyslipidemia. This disease is a violation in the body of lipid metabolism.
  3. Hypertension.
  4. Intoxication and infection. Under the influence of these problems, there is a significant destruction of the walls of the vessels.
  5. Smoking.
  6. Hypodynamia.
  7. Poor nutrition, which is rich in an abundance of animal fats.
  8. Bad heredity. Special influence on the development of the disease before the age of 50 years. At an older age, the genetic predisposition no longer plays a role.
  9. Gender. Men are most prone to pathology.
  10. Age. The category of risk includes people older than 40 years.

With the competent and timely prevention of the appearance of atherosclerosis can be prevented.

Symptoms of

Clinical manifestations always depend on what kind of atherosclerosis develops and which groups of vessels it affects. For the sclerosis of the heart vessels is characterized by the presence of a very wide range of clinical manifestations on the part of the cardiac system. The hue of the skin becomes pale, the limbs become colder, pressure jumps are noted. As often there are painful sensations of different strength.

After worsening of blood flow, there is also a decrease in mindfulness and working capacity, nervousness arises. Particular attention to the above described clinical picture should be drawn by people with serious pathologies( insufficiency of renal or liver, diabetes, etc.), since early diagnosis is especially important for them.

For the diagnosis of coronary artery aortic atherosclerosis read below.

More details about the symptoms of atherosclerosis of the vessels, as well as the causes of its appearance, will be told by the video below:

Diagnosis

The initial diagnosis is to be taken at the cardiologist's appointment after examination and collection of anamnesis. After passage of laboratory researches quite often high enough level of a cholesterin, triglycerides, lipoproteins of the lowered density is found out.

  • Further aortography is carried out, for which the X-ray method is applied. The examination reveals the vastness of lesions and the presence of obliteration, aneurysm, calcification, and its expansion.
  • Angiography is also used for the study, in which pathological aortic areas are highlighted by a specially introduced contrast medium.
  • Coronary angiography is used for coronary arteries.
  • As for all forms of the disease, ultrasonic diagnostics are performed, which helps to detect the presence of plaques and blood clots, worsening of the main blood flow, and a decrease in the lumen of the vessels.
  • The speed of blood flow is also studied by the method of rheovasography of the lower limbs.

On how to get rid of atherosclerosis of the vessels of the heart, we will tell further.

Treatment

Therapeutic

At the initial stages of the disease, lifestyle changes are one of the best ways to treat. Even in severe forms, a mandatory diet is indicated. Restricting the use of certain foods and changing the plan for eating a lot contributes to recovery. At the same time, it is important to connect and regular physical activities.

Pro medicine for atherosclerosis of the heart vessels read on.

Medication

Medication therapy is used in most cases, as they are excellent at curing pathological disorders:

  • Nicotinic acid, as well as a group of drugs derived from it. They increase the amount of high-density lipoproteins in the blood that have anti-atherogenic properties. In this case, triglycerides and cholesterol are suppressed. Drugs of this category are contraindicated for those who have liver disease.
  • The group of statin drugs also suppresses large amounts of cholesterol. Drink funds should be at night, because it is during this period is the most active of their development.
  • Sequestants of bile acids - remove them from the body, which helps to reduce the amount of fat in the cells.
  • Fibrates also are engaged in suppression of synthesis of own fats.
  • Beta-blockers. Helps eliminate many of the symptoms associated with chest discomfort. Also lower the pressure, which helps reduce the likelihood of attacks.
  • Diuretics are also important for lowering blood pressure.
  • Calcium channel blockers.

About operations as a method of treating atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels of the heart, read further.

Operation

Surgical intervention is necessary only for those cases when atherosclerosis is life threatening, when there is a very high risk of blockage of an arterial thrombus. The operation can be an intervention of the following types:

  1. Thrombolytic therapy .Helps dissolve the resulting clot, which helps restore blood flow.
  2. Angioplasty .Catheters are inserted into the area of ​​the beginning and the end of the narrowing of the lumen. One of them has a balloon, which inflates, thereby expanding the lumen. If necessary, in this area, leave a special stent to support the required diameter. Shunting .Through other vessels( sometimes special tubes) make a new bloodstream, bypassing the affected area.
  3. Endarterectomy is a surgical method of purification from internal sections of the vessels of deposits.

For the treatment of atherosclerosis of coronary heart vessels folk remedies read further.

Folk methods

Traditional methods of treatment, in particular, phytotherapy, can not be used as an independent technique. Of course, in the initial stages, when there is no need for serious medication, it can help, along with diet and exercise, but it's only the doctor who is able to say exactly.

The course of phytotherapy should include several different medicinal herbs, since each of them often has a different effect on atherosclerosis. Complex fees in this case are more preferable. For the initial stage of the pathology, the following recipes are best suited:

  1. The roots of elecampane are ground and 1 tsp.means to boil in water. Dilute the resulting mixture to 300 ml, add oregano, blackberries( leaves) and a shepherd's bag, warm. Take in equal portions 4 times a day.
  2. In equal parts, take strawberries( roots, stems, leaves), lemon balm, dandelion, nettles, add to the dishes, after which the mixture is poured hot water( 1.5 cups).After an hour, take the first portion. To use during the day the whole mixture.
  3. Hawthorn and immortelle( flowers) take 4 tbsp.l., add to them 2 tablespoons.l.leaves of cowberry and forest raspberry. The resulting collection is well stirred and for brewing the tea take 1 tsp.mixture on a cup. After an hour, the infusion is divided into parts and 4 times a day take 1/4 cup.
  4. Wild strawberries and strawberries are mixed with chopped oat straw and peppermint. Each of the ingredients is taken in an equal in weight measure. For 400 ml you will need to take 1 tbsp.l. Drink for a day, not less than 100 ml at a time.
  5. Stalks of dill are mixed with the roots of burdock, a medicinal letter, horsetail. In a glass brewed about 1 tsp.mixture.
  6. Clover and marigold are taken in equal parts, mixed with fruits of mountain ash and corn leaves. Collect the brew as described above.

For nutrition and a diet for atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels of the heart, read on.

Diet and nutrition

Correction of nutrition is one of the best methods of preventing atherosclerosis. Its basis is the elimination of "bad" cholesterol, the normalization of the condition of the arteries and the reduction of the risk of the disease. Cut calories, especially this rule applies to obese patients. There are 2 different diets, which are called diets I and II stages.

I stage

I stage is very gentle. An exception to atherosclerosis of the heart vessels are products with animal fats. For example:

  • egg yolks,
  • cheese fused,
  • fatty meat,
  • fat,
  • brains,
  • byproducts,
  • sour cream,
  • oil,
  • fatty dairy products.

For 1 stage of the diet, it is desirable to include a large number of vegetables, cereals and fruits in the diet. Preference should be given to low-fat meat or fish. Replace animal protein products capable of plant - lentils, chickpeas, beans.

II stage

II stage is much tougher. If indulgences at 1 type of a food are supposed, for 2 diets all products described above under the categorical interdiction. This diet is necessary for people with a high risk of developing or already emerging atherosclerosis.

Prevention

Prophylactic measures are very effective and in many cases avoid the appearance of pathological changes.

  • To do this, it is necessary to exclude the influence on the body of any bad habits, do not forget about the constant physical activity, which is important for good working capacity of the whole organism.
  • Experiences also need to be removed from their lives.
  • In addition, it will be necessary not to ignore the planned visits to doctors and be sure to regularly conduct all the necessary studies. Identified at the earliest stages of the disease, contributing to the emergence of atherosclerosis, it is much easier to treat at the first stage of their occurrence.

More details on the prevention and treatment of vascular arteriosclerosis will be told by this video:

Complications of

The main complication that can develop with atherosclerosis is vascular failure of chronic or acute form. In chronic course, the lumen narrows gradually. Often, this causes a number of other complications, including atrophic changes, hypoxia, ischemia, proliferation of sclerosis.

Acute vascular insufficiency leads to heart attacks or acute ischemia, appears as a result of acute blockage of the lumen by the lumen. This complication can provoke a fatal outcome due to rupture of the aneurysm of the artery.

Under the influence of atherosclerosis, complications such as peripheral arterial diseases, aneurysms, stroke, heart attack, ischemic transient attacks, and infarction also appear.

Forecast

In each case, the prognosis is individual and depends only on how well and completely fulfills the patient's instructions and recommendations of doctors, whether he recedes from the chosen tactics of treatment. To keep further development these factors will help, which will allow to maintain good health for a long time. The worst prognosis is given to patients who under the influence of the disease already formed necrotic foci, there were acute circulatory disorders.

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