Chronic and acute alcoholic gastritis: symptoms, treatment, prevention

Alcoholic gastritis appears in all International Classifications of Diseases, but in recent years physicians have used the term "alcoholic gastropathy" in parallel. The reason is that of all kinds of gastritis alcoholic is practically the only one in which the gastric mucosa does not become inflamed, but receives a severe chemical burn with alcoholic beverages. And the new term is intended to emphasize this difference. But the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of alcoholic stomach disease are typical for most types of "traditional" gastritis.

Alcoholic gastritis

Alcoholic gastritis is an acute or chronic lesion of the gastric mucosa that develops against the background of active drinking.

If ingested, the digestive system gets hit by one of the first. After drinking a stack or a glass of alcohol first penetrates into the stomach, from there up to 20% of the poison is sucked into the blood. The rest - about 80% - already in the intestine.

In the stomach, alcohol is first taken as a mucous. It instantly burns the mucous membrane, which causes small ulcers and bleeding to appear on the surface, and soon blood vessels begin to die.

The development of protective gastric mucus is disrupted, the motor-evacuation function of the stomach suffers, and problems with digestion of food and the assimilation of nutrients inevitably arise. And deprived of a full blood supply mucous under the influence of gastric juice and alcohol is gradually destroyed.

Forms of

Alcoholic gastritis manifests itself in two forms - acute and chronic. Almost all people who abuse alcohol, at least once in their life faced with an attack of acute alcohol gastropathy. According to medical statistics, with time, 15-95% of alcoholics develop a chronic gastric disease.

The limiting dose of alcohol for each person is individual, but there are two factors that inevitably bring on an attack of acute gastropathy.

The first is strong alcohol. If the "relaxing" drinks are more than 20 degrees, the suction rate is sharply reduced. So, alcohol lingers in the stomach and actively destroys the tissue. The second factor is a snack. If you use pure alcohol, without food, then its toxicity increases.


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Chronic gastritis in alcoholics develops slowly, against a background of regular drinking of all ethanol drinks. This disorder proceeds cyclically: a long remission with almost no unpleasant symptoms is suddenly replaced by exacerbation. Mucous cells die gradually, the stomach stops functioning fully, and eventually chronic gastropathy can develop into an atrophic gastritis or ulcer.

mucous membrane of healthy and sick stomach

Causes of

The main reason for alcohol abuse is the abuse of alcoholic beverages.

In acute illness, this is a one-time intake of alcohol - a dose that can lead to severe poisoning, each person has his own. The risk of getting powerful intoxication rises in alcoholics who drink more than 60 ml of pure alcohol per day. To develop a chronic alcoholic disease of the mucosa, use should be long and systematic.

The following factors can also provoke an acute attack and intensify the development of chronic alcoholic gastritis:

  • severe stress or nerve congestion;
  • physical fatigue( overwork);
  • chronic fatigue syndrome and long absence of rest;
  • harmful work( chemical production, etc.);
  • poor heredity and smoking;
  • obesity and harmful eating habits;
  • already available stomach diseases.

On the video effect of alcohol on the stomach:

Symptoms of

The main symptoms of alcoholic gastropathy( both acute and chronic) are dyspepsia, that is, various digestive disorders.

To recognize alcoholic damage to the stomach, you can by the following signals:

  • pain in the stomach( abdomen) of a different nature - acute, aching, blunt;
  • nausea( especially in the morning);
  • excruciating vomiting( sometimes with blood - this is a sign of open sores on the mucosa);Heartburn and eructation
  • ;
  • constant thirst and dry mouth;
  • feeling of heaviness in the stomach, rapid saturation;
  • constipation( characteristic of chronic form).

If, after taking a helping of alcohol, some of the symptoms disappear without a trace or become smoother - you definitely have an alcoholic gastritis before you.

Like other gastritis forms, alcohol can occur in two versions - with reduced and increased acidity. When the acidity is reduced, the main sign is a feeling of overeating( even after a small portion), heaviness, belching, then gas, bloating, loud rumbling. Increased hydrochloric acid gradually dissolves mucous, so the main symptom here is pain, especially at night and on an empty stomach. Often there is a heartburn, an acidic eructation.

In chronic pathology, alcoholic drinkers have systemic signs of alcohol intoxication:

  • polyneuropathy( peripheral nerves are damaged, which leads to problems with movements and sensitivity);
  • gradual muscle atrophy;
  • tachycardia and shortness of breath.


Diagnosis of alcoholic gastritis takes place according to the traditional scheme for all gastritis.

The doctor's work includes several stages:

  1. Anamnesis. Here, the general picture of the disease is established( signs, possible causes, how the ailment developed).And also information about the whole life of the patient - eating habits, addiction to alcohol and cigarettes, hereditary diseases, etc.
  2. Exterior examination( palpation and tapping of the abdomen).
  3. Laboratory methods( general and biochemical blood test, feces analysis, urinalysis, Helicobacter pylori tests).
  4. Instrumental diagnostic methods( PHAGS, biopsy, X-ray, ultrasound, etc.).

Treatment of

Treatment of alcoholic gastric pathology usually takes longer than the treatment of "classic" gastritis. The most important condition for successful cure is a complete refusal of alcohol for life( and during treatment - also from cigarettes).Otherwise, even a single serving of alcohol can negate all the efforts of the doctor and patient.

Treatment of alcoholic gastropathy is carried out exclusively in a conservative way, two main approaches are used: the medical diet and medications. Sometimes doctors recommend additional folk remedies( cabbage or carrot juice, propolis, herbs, etc.).But self-selection of home recipes is strictly prohibited - this should only be done by a doctor based on your medical history.

For alcoholics with experience after the main course, treatment with a therapist is necessary.

Therapeutic diet

Different types of alcoholic gastropathy use different therapeutic diets. If the disease is acute or in the phase of exacerbation, with increased secretion of gastric juice - diet No. 1 is needed. When the acidity is lowered, diet No. 2 is prescribed. If the disease has passed into the stage of remission, diet No. 15 is chosen for recovery, a transitional between the nutritional diet and the normal diet of a healthy person.

The first two treatment diets have much in common - you need to eat 5-6 times a day, hot and cold dishes are not recommended. Before you start to treat the disease, from the diet should exclude baked pastry and black bread, all fatty, salted and smoked, seasonings and marinades. All the nuances of the curative menu can be learned from a gastroenterologist or nutritionist.

Medical treatment

Therapy for alcoholic gastric lesions involves the use of different groups of drugs:

  • means to reduce or stimulate the secretion of gastric juice( in the first case - "Famotidine", "Omeprazole" in the second - "Limonar", mineral water);
  • gastroprotectors( "Sukralfat", "Solkoseril");
  • painkillers( No-shpa);
  • prokinetics( "Motilium", etc.);
  • multivitamin complexes;
  • for dehydration - droppers.

Consequences and prevention

Alcoholic gastropathy is fertile ground for the development of other gastrointestinal diseases, up to oncology. Chronic gastritis in alcoholics often causes duodenitis( a disease of the duodenum), the pancreas and gallbladder can become inflamed.

Small ulcers on the mucosa have the property to tighten themselves for a month, but if you constantly interrupt the process of treatment with alcoholic libations, a full-blown stomach ulcer can develop. Sometimes mucosal damage leads to internal bleeding, this can provoke a fatal outcome.

Prevention of alcoholic stomach diseases is very simple - you need to give up drinking alcohol. To support the stomach will help a full diet - useful snacks, small portions of food 5-6 times a day. It is recommended to minimize fast food in the menu, sweet soda, fatty, spicy and smoked food, try to choose natural products without aromatic additives and chemical spices.

With full complex treatment of alcoholic gastritis, the prognosis is quite favorable. But you need to comply with all the conditions - avoid alcohol and maintain the correct diet.

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