There are a lot of bushes and deciduous trees on the territory of Russia, many of them know about the practical benefits, but they do not have the opportunity to use it. One of these bushes of medicinal purposes is black elder, photo of which is in the article. This perennial plant is spread almost throughout the country, found in Africa, Asia, Europe. The shrub reaches a large size. For medicinal purposes, its inflorescences and fruits are used. Useful properties and rich composition of the plant, help him cope with a number of colds, and the aroma of flowers is felt at a considerable distance.
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Description of plant, features
Where the black elder grows, even small children know, because its population is quite extensive. The shrub very quickly turns into a tall tree, which reaches 2-6 meters. As looks elder, will help determine the following characteristics:
- stems branched, have a woody shell;
- the core is white, porous, rather soft;
- young branches have a green color, and the old ones are gray;
- leaves have opposite placement, reach a length of 10-30 cm, odd-pinnate;
- flowers are yellowish white, very small, collected in voluminous inflorescences, have a sharp but pleasant smell;
- fruit - black and violet, a small berry that has a sweet-sour taste.
The plant description will help to better understand its appearance, so that a person does not confuse it with other, more poisonous species of this shrub.
Please note! In the qualitative composition of this plant, a small amount of toxic substances is observed. For humans, they do not cause harm, but mammals are killed immediately after a species representative has tried the fruits of the plant.
Features composition and medicinal properties of the plant
Black elder has a very rich quality composition, due to which its medicinal properties are provided. The flowers and berries of this shrub contain the following components:
- glycosides, hydrocyanic acid;
- benzaldehyde, glucose;
- essential oil, carotene;
- ascorbic, acetic, malic, chlorogenic acid;
- coffee acid, tannins;
- resins, mineral salts;
- amino acids, fatty oils.
Useful properties of the bush are determined by its ability to effectively combat the following diseases:
- of the urinary system;
- inflammatory processes of the upper respiratory tract;
- severe cough;
- kidney disease;
- inflammation in the oral cavity;
- gynecological diseases;
- rheumatism, gout, burns, boils, intertrigo.
Application of plant fruits to prepare a tasty jam, has been practiced for a long time. Elderberry is used as a natural dye, honey is collected from the flowers. Some people plant black elderberry exclusively as an ornamental plant. Flowers and bush fruits are the main constituent of many drugs, in folk medicine there are many recipes, the composition of which includes flowers or elderberry fruits.
Please note! If the bush is grown near the house, then it must be cut regularly. The plant very quickly reaches a high altitude and reproduces quite intensively.
Varieties and their features
Different types of elderberry differ from each other in appearance, quality composition. In addition to black elderberry, grass, red, white, and Siberian are often found. Each variety of plant has a number of characteristic features that distinguish it from another subspecies.
It should be noted that the elderberry grassy( in the photo) for its healing properties is not much different from the elderberry black. This species is a perennial plant that reaches small sizes, has rather thin, grassy stems. Its height reaches 50-150 cm. This elder has a sharp enough, unpleasant smell, is more poisonous than a tree-like species of shrub. The flowers are white, small, and the fruits are black, very small, shiny.
The famous elderberry red, the photo of which is present in this article, is an excellent source of nutrition for birds that are carriers of its seeds. This plant biologists were characterized as follows:
- is a medium-sized tree;
- has rather sprawling branches;
- reaches a height of up to 3.5 m;
- flowers are rather small;
- fruit is drupe, has a red color;
- the bone is small.
Read it! How to apply the juice of black elderberry.
This elderberry is not poisonous to humans and animals. The plant does not require special climatic conditions, it takes root almost everywhere.
White and Siberian elder elderly
Siberian elder is growing in Russia. It was named because of regional affiliation. It is a shrub with thick branches, a gray-brown bark. The height reaches up to four meters. It has odd-pinnate leaves, green-white small flowers and fruits of red color. Siberian elder( see photo) has medicinal properties, is widely used in folk medicine. Flowering from May to June, and the fruits ripen in August. It grows on the banks of rivers, stony banks, in forests. For medicinal purposes, all parts of the plant are used.
White elder, the photo of which looks very interesting contains a lot of essential oils, ascorbic acid, vitamins. All parts of this plant are used for medicinal purposes, and during flowering, it has a remarkable appearance.
All kinds of this plant contain a lot of vitamins, substances useful to the human body. From the fruit prepare a delicious jam, and inflorescences are part of the medicinal collections. The tree-like shrubbery grows rapidly, multiplies even faster, because it does it in a vegetative way - the division of the root system.
Herbaceous elder has the most unpleasant smell, which is not found in any of the species, but the medicinal properties resemble those present in black. Planting this plant near the house is completely safe, and its fruits will allow you to diversify the menu of sweet preservation. There are many effective, folk medicinal recipes with the use of elder, which are passed down from generation to generation. This culture is hardy to heat and cold, has a large number of small fruits, miniature flowers of the right form.
The use of the plant for the preparation of cosmetic masks began to spread very recently, but it is a wonderful way to saturate the skin with the necessary vitamins and microelements. The benefit to the person is brought by all parts of this shrub, it does not need to be tended, and during the flowering period or when fruits are ripening, the culture looks quite beautiful. Shrub - a real storehouse of useful substances that are necessary for health. Growing and collecting elderberry is necessary in order to get rid of health problems without much expense. The positive characteristics of this culture compel many people to harvest its fruits every year. Proper harvesting, storage conditions will guarantee that the benefits of the plant will be clear.