Artichoke is a large vegetable, reaching a height of up to 1.9 m, which belongs to the family of astroves. It is referred to perennial plants with spiny dark green, leathery leaves. Many people love artichoke, because it is useful, for its unusual beautiful appearance, taste qualities. To get a delicious artichoke, growing out of seeds does not require special expenses and skills. It takes only a little time, patience.
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Cultivation - general tips
To answer how to grow an artichokefrom seeds, it is necessary to know that this is a rather fastidious plant, requiring sufficient watering, sunlight and good quality of the land. Artichoke successfully tolerates growing in the central strip of Russia, if properly covered with opal foliage, fresh hay, sawdust. Cultivation in Siberia requires serious attention, so it is best to dig an artichoke, leave it in a cool room. It is better, if the seedlings will be in the cellar before the heat comes.
Artichoke well tolerates the cold. Maybe survive the short spring frosts. However, reducing the temperature to -1, can destroy the initial sprouts, and finally destroy the crop.
Important: so that frost does not kill young shoots - wrap lentrasilom seedlings during the onset of frost.
Cultivation of artichokes can be carried out using seeds or root layers. The second way of cultivation is carried out if someone from your environment grows it himself, becausein vegetable Russian nurseries there is no such cuttings. This information is for those who do not know how to grow a real artichoke from seedlings.
Artichoke species number only 10 names, 2 of them are suitable for eating - the artichoke is Spanish and prickly.
As for the decorative cultivation, seeds are used:
- Roman violet;
- green ball;
- Maikop low;Artillery saddle artillery
- May 41.
Important: must be seeded before sowing so that they are not dry and undamaged. The skin should be smooth and the color light.
The choice of soil
Artichoke can be compared with a thistle. However, the thistle is able to live perfectly on any soil and feel comfortable, which can not be said about artichoke. It will not just grow on poor soil without getting sun. He needs a soil that will be rich in micro-, macro elements, a sufficient amount of nitrogen, potassium.
In the autumn period it is necessary to excavate a hole 60 cm deep. Add 10 cm layer of drainage, which consists of expanded clay, clay fragments, sintepon, pebbles. Then it is necessary to fill up with a mixture consisting of: 3 parts of the earth, 3 parts of humus, 1 part of peat. Such soil is good for layers and seeds.
The question of how to grow an artichoke from seeds is simple enough. If you want to get a one-year yield, then you can do a little procedure, such as vernalization of seeds. After its holding, it is possible to get a rich harvest in the first year, but with such artificial flowering the plant is very weak, and is not adapted to cold, so it quickly dies.
How vernalization is carried out
Vernalization should be carried out in early February. The first step is laying the seeds on well-moistened sand. Then leave them in this position at a temperature of up to 26 C until the seeds begin to swell and break through the shell. It usually takes up to a week - this will be the most proper seed growing at home.
Important: to keep the sand wet, periodically spray them from the spray gun.
The last step is to install a box containing the sprouts in the refrigerator and leave for 2 weeks until the roots become dark. After this you can safely spend their sowing.
seeds Let's consider in detail how it is necessary to grow an artichoke from seeds.
Seeding on the seedlings of the
To beginner, a gardener-gardener is enough to start with just one pack. It contains 15 pieces of the same kind. If you have never encountered planting an artichoke, then experiment with varieties is not worth it.
Important! When to plant? Cultivation of artichoke seedlings starts from the first days of March in the landing boxes, and the training takes approximately 21 days, starting from February.
- To begin with, the seeds are poured with filtered water at room temperature. So leave for the night. The soaked seeds are added to the soaked cloth, folded several times, the film is applied from above, to create a greenhouse effect, and left in a warm place until sprouting sprouts. When the first sprouts appeared, the parcel was sent to a cold store - this is important for hardening.
- Prepare a container for seed placement. The soil mixture must consist of filtered sand, humus, turf ground. The ratio of the components is 1: 1: 1.Soil to moisten and before its placement in boxes to make a preliminary drainage.
- In the boxes make holes 1-2 cm deep with a gap of 3-4 cm and scatter the seeds on them.
- Seeds slightly priporoshivayut earth, and watered with a spray and left on the windowsill.
Important! Strictly watch that the soil is always wet.
After 3-4 days you can see the first sprout. And in 2 weeks the first leaves will appear. To prevent plants from stretching, you need to lower the temperature to 14 ° C and make a highlight. Do not overdo it with watering, since this can cause rotting of the roots.
After 2 weeks, with the appearance of the first leaf, they make a picking, i.e. they are planted in different containers, because they grow very much. Artichoke seedlings are large enough, so that plants are comfortable, they should be placed in peat-and-pot pots with parameters reaching at least 0.5 liters.
- In the pots, put a combination of sand, earth and humus, in the middle to make a hole and add water.
- Sprouts seedlings and individually each plant to get, put in pots and put in a bright place.
Important! Picks are carried out at the tip of the seedling root to form a rich root system.
14 days after the pick, it is necessary to feed the seedlings. For these purposes, a solution of Mullein 1:10, and after a couple of weeks - a combined top-dressing of the necessary vitamins and minerals.
Landing in the open ground
In the first week of May, it is allowed to begin barking of seedlings boldly, and after 20 numbers, small future artichokes are planted on the plot.
- A favorable place for planting is the southern side with well-fertilized soil.
- Must be landed in rows in individual landing pits or beds.
- To obtain edible artichoke in the garden, dig through the territory, add humus, potassium sulfate, superphosphate.
- Make ridge height 25 cm with a gap of 1 m. After transplanting the artichoke is watered, covered with straw.
If growing as a landscape design, then a prominent place is chosen. Digging pits 85 cm deep, add compost and turf ground. In the pit to put plants with peat pots. Then watered, covered with straw or grass.
Reproduction by root layers
Multiplication can occur in several ways.
The first method is that at 3 year the root begins to give the first sprouts, which are already an individual plant. Separating the daughter from the mother plant is allowed only if there are several well-formed leaves.
When digging a sprout, it is worth remembering that the root lies very deep, so everything must be done calmly, accurately, without damage.
- A tunnel is made from 20 cm from the plant so that the root system is covered with earth.
- Next gently cut off the side cut from the main one. For this, the spade is wedged between the germ and the mother plant. If the gap is small, then wedging is done along the stem - this helps maintain the integrity of the root system.
- Inspect the sprout for damage, if done correctly, then we process the root with a root growth activator. And already then there is a transfer to a permanent site.
There is a second simplified version. You can get a sprout from those plants that remained all winter time in a dark cool room. In the first days of February, it is necessary to cut out the secondary root from the main one with a small thickness and length of up to 16 cm. Then, root the root system with growth activators and insert the sprout into a container containing sawdust made of fruit and fruit trees to a depth of 12 cm.
Important: while you are waiting for the lead, you can not allow the drying of sawdust.
A month later, the first germ begins to appear. To dry air did not kill the young artichoke, it is necessary to cover it with a jar, to form a favorable environment. Remove the dome should be in the period when the sprout is gaining strength, and the leaves will grow to 6 cm. It is easy to care for it - you just have to constantly watch so that the sprout does not dry out. You can also do without fertilizers, because the necessary trace elements are found in the mother's root system.
For 14 days before planting, the sprout must be hardened. For this, it is necessary to take out the seedlings on the street for 2-3 hours. When frosts pass, the brood can be placed on the territory where the artichoke will grow.
You do not have to worry about how to care for a plant. As stated earlier, artichoke - a culture unpretentious and care for it is minimal, and does not require separate costs. He, like all the rest of the family, requires regular watering, mulching, weed removal and fertilizer.
Artichoke reacts very well to various fertilizing, especially for foliar fertilizer - spraying with a solution that has a rich composition:
- 25 g superphosphate;
- 10 g of potassium chloride;
- 10 g of wood ash.
Important: spraying with top dressing should be carried out no more than once in 4 weeks, as a vitamin supplement and prevention.
Usually, you can get a full crop, for the second year. Flowering, ripening occurs unevenly, and therefore it is necessary to cut everything as it matures. Faster to sing fruits can be when the upper scales of the cones will move apart, as soon as the petal turns blue - it is ready for use.
Now, many points about how to grow artichoke in the country, disappears. The appearance of a new kind of vegetable in the garden will please not only you, but relatives and friends. And most importantly, you can grow it easy for those who live in Ukraine, in the suburbs.