Pancreatic blastoma is a pathological and excess tissue increase, which consists of deformed cells that have lost their original form and functionality.
There are benign and malignant blastomas. With the growth of benign tumors, there is a separation of closely located tissues. And malignant neoplasms germinate in the tissues, damage and destroy the blood vessels, which spread the pathological cells along the body. In this case metastasis is observed, which distinguishes benign neoplasms.
Causes of blastoma
For a long time, specialists have been investigating the causes of the blastoma of the pancreas and other organs. But it is impossible to determine the exact factors that stimulate neoplasms.
But there is some information on the basis of which it is established that the action of certain substances activates the processes of changes in the cells of the body. For example, the genetic structure of cells is replaced by carcinogens of viral, physical and chemical origin. The major share of carcinogens is of chemical origin. These are substances formed from the use of certain products, tobacco smoking and the impact of negative factors of industrial activity.
Other risk factors for blastoma include:
- chronic pancreatitis;
- gene mutations;
- is more than 60 years old;
- male gender;
- features nutrition( greasy food intake, lack of fiber);
- diabetes mellitus.
Symptoms of pancreatic blastoma
Symptoms and signs of blastoma may depend on the localization of the pathological process. Neoplasms in the tail or body of the pancreas are the result of diabetes mellitus.
For a long time, a blastoma can proceed without symptoms and is manifested in the late stages of the disease. The main symptoms of the blastoma include:
- acute pain in the upper region of the back or abdomen, slightly decreasing with the bending of the legs;
- jaundice, which is often combined with pruritus of the skin;
- , when a cancer occurs, vomiting is observed because of the squeezing of the tumor by the transference of the stomach into the 12-colon;
- weight reduction;
- frequent urination and thirst, which are symptoms of diabetes mellitus;
- diarrhea in the form of a liquid and fetid stool, which manifests itself with a deficiency of enzymes in the pancreas and reduced absorption of fats.
Blastomes of the tail and body of the pancreas for a long time do not appear. Only growing to large parameters and exerting pressure on the duodenum, they cause pain and intestinal obstruction.
Started tumors affect the peritoneal cavity( carcinomatosis), causing fluid formation. Because of its congestion, the size of the abdomen increases.
Diagnosis and treatment of blastoma
The diagnosis of blastoma begins with the examination of the patient and the identification of certain symptoms. Instrumental methods of examination are also conducted.
Retrograde cholangiopancreatography based on the administration of contrast medium through the bile flow is used for the study. For the study of tumor neoplasms, ultrasound is used, where it is possible to observe the bile flows and the nature of the development of the disease. With malignant tumors or cancer, computed tomography is performed.
Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity allows you to determine the cause of pain and jaundice. Often this symptomatology is associated with the appearance of stones in the ducts of the pancreas or bile ducts. If a tumor was found in the examination, then a CT scan is performed. This method allows you to identify the cells that make up the formation.
A biopsy can also be performed where a puncture is performed using a fine needle under the control of ultrasound or CT scan.
If at a microscopic examination cancer cells were detected, then the diagnosis of "blastoma" is confirmed and additional tests are prescribed( ultrasound of the liver, chest X-ray, etc.).
At the time of diagnosis, in many patients, the tumor grows beyond the boundaries of the organ. It is impossible to perform a radical operation. To remove the head formations, radical surgery is performed called pancreatoduodenal resection. In the course of this operation, removal of the 12-типерстной intestine, parts of the stomach and pancreas is performed. Then anastomoses are established, intended for the admission of bile and food into the small intestine.
With blastomas of the tail and body of the pancreas, corporecaudal resection is performed where these areas of the organ are removed. Unsuccessful tumors are eliminated by palliative surgery with the elimination of pain, obstruction of the 12-типерстной gut and jaundice.
In the treatment of blastomas, chemotherapy and the use of drugs to reduce the symptoms of the disease can be carried out.