Polyps that form in the digestive organs usually do not have clear symptoms, so it is often not possible to learn about the presence, as well as the nature of the growth, without special investigation. The most effective method to date is endoscopy.
This diagnosis, in addition to confirming the presence of polyps in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, makes it possible to perform a targeted biopsy. This makes it possible to conduct a histological study of the neoplasm and determine the correct tactics of treatment.
Such a study should be performed with any pathological changes in the intestine or stomach, and especially if there are tumor-like outgrowths in them that are prone to malignancy in order to reveal the nature of the changes occurring in them. Biopsy of the polyp allows you to determine its cellular composition.
In the event that a microscopic examination of an organ damaged by a pathology shows a positive result, it will be final and on the basis of it a corresponding treatment will be prescribed, which is usually performed by a surgical method followed by medical therapy.
And if the conclusion of a biopsy of the polyp turns out to be negative, but the patient will have indirect signs of the tumor process occurring in the stomach or intestine, and the endoscopist will remain suspicious of the erroneous result of the study, this procedure is repeated.
To know the exact results of a biopsy is necessary in order that only on their basis will the question of choosing the method of urgent surgical intervention be decided. In polyps this can be both a cavitary operation and a minimally invasive procedure, performed without opening the cavities, with the help of an endoscopic device.
Indications for biopsy of the polyp
The presence of these benign neoplasms for the most part can provoke the presence of stasis in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. This causes various disruptions in the process of digestion and, accordingly, symptoms of the presence in the gastrointestinal tract of polyps, for the study of which a biopsy is needed, will be the following:
- Irregular stool, which may be completely absent for more than 2 days;
- In the area of the stomach, pain begins to manifest, which translates into the lumbar region;
- Frequent feeling of nausea, unreasonable salivation and heartburn;
- Reduced appetite or total lack of it.
But it should be noted that these signs may indicate not only the presence of polyps, but also other diseases of the digestive tract, for which biopsy results are necessary. Therefore, if any of these symptoms occur, a visit to the doctor is mandatory.
Contraindications to biopsy of polyp
Due to the fact that biopsy is mandatory for endoscopic examination of the stomach, it is necessary to pay close attention to possible contraindications for both procedures. These are usually referred to as:
- The presence of deformed scar structures in the stomach or its perforation;
- Chemical burn, present on the mucosa of the digestive organ;
- Atrophic gastritis or hemorrhagic diathesis;
- Severe patient condition due to the presence of concomitant diseases.
Relative contraindications, which should also be taken into account before taking polyps biopsies by the endoscopic method, include the presence of allergic reactions to such drugs as lidocaine, the possibility of significant bleeding arising from mucosal damage, a person's fear of doing thisresearch.
Technique for biopsy of the polyp
One name of this procedure causes fear in a patient who, due to physiological pathologies, is prescribed. This is facilitated by numerous stories of "knowledgeable" people about the painfulness of this study and the unpleasant sensations caused by it.
But it's not always worth listening to such warnings, since many of them are not true. So in the case of biopsies of polyps of digestive organs, there is such a technique, in which very thin needles are used as a tool for carrying it out. The procedure performed in this way does not cause the patient any negative sensations and soreness.
In the case when the selection of the biomaterial for the polyp for further investigation is performed surgically, the patient is under local anesthesia, so this method also will not bring pain and discomfort.