Vomiting with signs of bleeding can signal a disease - Mallory Weiss syndrome. According to statistics, this diagnosis is stated in 10% of cases when this symptomatology is observed. If it is not possible to stop vomiting and bleeding, it is necessary, as soon as possible, to seek help from a doctor.
Definition and disease code according to ICD-10
The disease is characterized by a malfunctioning of the mucosa in the area of the esophagus or stomach. Damage to the surface occurs in the form of longitudinal discontinuities.
According to statistics, most of the sick people abuse alcohol. This circumstance negatively affects the health of the mucous membrane of the digestive organs, making it more delicate and vulnerable.
Gaps occur due to increased pressure in the upper gastrointestinal tract, especially if this phenomenon occurs abruptly.
Such circumstances create the following prerequisites for the disease:
- severe nasal cough,
- gravity lifting,
- abdominal trauma in the form of a sharp blow with a blunt object,
- damage to the esophageal mucosa during the procedure - fibro-esophagogastroduodenoscopy,
- same for resuscitationlung or heart,
- hernia diaphragm.
The resulting stress in some part of the esophagus or stomach leads to the fact that the organ in this place is forced to undergo stretching of the walls, as a result of which their ruptures may occur.
The disease has the following characteristics:
- There are painful sensations in the abdomen.
- The vomit has blood clots, which indicates the bleeding of the digestive organ. This sign may not appear immediately. This is because it is vomiting from overeating or from toxic effects on the body, as a result of pregnancy or alcohol intoxication, in its beginning provoked rupture of the mucosa.
- Melena - fecal masses are black, which is a consequence of bleeding within the digestive organs. If this symptom is present, there may be no signs of bleeding in the vomit.
- If bleeding occurs for a while, then there are common symptoms that are characteristic of this phenomenon:
- pale skin,
To determine the correct diagnosis, the specialist conducts a number of actions:
- Makes an anamnesis of the disease according to the patient's words.
- To understand the disease, you need to do a blood test.
- From studies using equipment, the most informative way is esophagogastroscopy. This is an endoscopic method of diagnosis, it allows you to see damage to the walls of internal organs and understand the extent of this lesion.
Treatment of the Mallory-Weiss syndrome
The first task is to stop vomiting or other factor initiating the possibility of wall rupture. At the same time, the same important task is to stop bleeding.
The main method of treatment is conservative therapy.
- agents that stop bleeding:
- aminocaproic acid,
- calcium chloride,
- metoclopramide - relieves a vomiting,
- for recovery after a blood loss of its normal volume in the body:
- colloidal solutions,
- crystalloid solutions,
- use blood transfusion.
If there are gaps in the mucosal surface of the esophagus or stomach, and there is a need to stop the bleeding, then it is possible to apply endoscopic methods of help:
- Introduction of sclerasants - special drugs that stop bleeding.
- Electrocoagulation is the fixation of a bleeding vessel by means of an electric current.
- A site with a bleeding is cut off with application of a preparation of adrenaline. The drug has a vasoconstrictive effect.
- Argon-plasma coagulation is an effective method, but technically difficult for execution.
- Clipping of vessels - in places of bleeding on the vessels put small protzapki.
- Vascular ligation - fixation with latex materials.
In most cases, the disease has a positive prognosis. Usually, it turns out to stop the bleeding, or this phenomenon goes by itself.
To avoid the appearance of longitudinal cracks on the surface of the mucous membrane of the digestive organs, it is necessary to observe simple rules:
- not to allow excessive stretching of the walls of the esophagus or stomach:
- to take a small amount of food at a time,
- in time to treat digestive diseases,
- not to lift excessive gravities.
- Avoid traumatic effects on the mucous surface of the digestive system:
- Do not eat food that contains coarse fiber,
- cure alcohol dependence.
Video showing Mallory-Weiss Syndrome: