The drug Leukeran belongs to the group of antineoplastic pharmacological agents of the alkylating series. The main active ingredient in the amount of 2 mg per tablet is chlorambucil. The composition of the shell includes the following components: titanium oxide, iron oxide red and yellow, macrogol and hypromelose.
Also, the auxiliary components include stearic acid, silicon dioxide and cellulose.
The preparation is produced in the form of tablets( 25,50 or 100 tablets in a glass bottle), the tablets are in the form of a biconvex disc of brown color, covered with a coating on top. One tablet contains 2 mg of chlorambucil.
The preparation Leukeran is manufactured in Germany on the basis of pharmaceutical plants Heumann GmbH.
Indications for use
There are a number of diseases for which treatment of Leukeran is indicated:
- Malignant degeneration of ovarian tissue( adenocarcinoma);
- Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphogranulomatosis;
- Leukemia of lymphocytic origin;
- Breast cancer in women.
It is strictly forbidden to use Leukeran for the treatment of benign neoplasms. The presence of hypersensitivity to any component indicates that the drug can not be used.
In the picture, the preparation Leukeran
Be careful with the appointment of the drug should you have a pregnancy or while breastfeeding the child, with liver disease in the stage of decompensation, kidney failure and in diseases of the stomach and intestines.
Do not use Leukeran immediately after exposure to the patient and people with signs of oppression of the hematopoietic system.
Mechanism of action
Chlorambucil is a derivative of nitrogenous yperite, which affects the processes of DNA translation and replication in the cell. Under the influence of chlorambucil, a specific protein accumulates in the cytosol of the cell, which subsequently provokes the self-destruction of this cell( apoptosis).
Instruction for the use of the drug Leukeran
For lymphogranulomatosis, the standard dose is 0.2 mg per kg of body weight, it should be taken within 5-8 weeks.
In chronic leukemia of lymphocytic genesis, 0.15 mg per kg per day is initially consumed, the course lasts on average about 4-7 weeks( until the quantitative leukocyte count reaches 10 thousand cells per μL). After 4 weeks of interruption, it is necessary to repeat the course of therapyLakeran, but only at a dose of 0.1 mg per kg.
In the treatment of macroglobulinemia, a dosage of 6 to 12 mg per day is initially established, the drug is continued in parallel with the control of the hemogram, until the appearance of leukopenia. Then reduce the dose to 2-8 mg per day.
For malignant degeneration of ovarian tissue, an initial and maintenance dose of 0.2 mg per kilogram per day is recommended. A break between the course of therapy should be at least 2 months.
For the treatment of breast cancer, both Leykeran monotherapy and a combination including prednisolone or methotrexate, fluorouracil are used.
If any pathological processes occur in the bone marrow, then it is necessary to limit the dose of the drug, which is 0.1 mg per kilogram.
Side effects of
During the period of Leukeran administration the following side effects can occur:
- Digestive system: dyspeptic disorders in the form of attacks of nausea and vomiting, burning sensations in the oral cavity, periodic pain in the stomach or intestines, icterus of the skin and mucous membranes on the background of hepatonecrosis or bile stagnation;
- The bone marrow function ( myelosuppressive state) is oppressed: in the blood the quantity of all elements( pancytopenia) decreases;
- From the side of the nervous system: frequent epiprids, numbness and crawling flies in the arms and legs( peripheral neuropathy), constant nervous excitation, hallucinogenic reactions, weakness, twitching of some muscles;
- Allergic reactions of may develop in the form of toxic dermatitis( Lyell syndrome), erythematous rashes, fever;
- In the lungs of fibers of connective tissue grow, which leads to their fibrosis, pneumonia can develop;
- In men, , azoospermia may develop on the background of taking this medication, and in women - amenorrhea;
- Inflammation of the bladder often develops, the level of uric acid increases;
The main symptoms that arise from an overdose of Leykeran are reversible motor function disorders and pancytopenia according to laboratory indicators( also reversible).
There is no specific antagonist of the drug to date, therefore, in case of an overdose, the stomach should be washed out to the patient and the work of the heart and respiration of a person should be constantly monitored.
Therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia should begin with glucocorticoids( prednisolone), and then add Leukeran.
In order to avoid the development of functional kidney failure, it is necessary to drink plenty of fluids and take drugs that inhibit the synthesis of uric acid.
People who suffer from the pathology of the hepatobiliary system are advised to reduce the initial dosage and dose of the drug for maintenance therapy.
Leukeran can be administered in parallel with other cytotoxic drugs. Preparations that bind well to protein compounds of blood, increase the toxic effect of Leykeran on the body.
Andrew, 45 years:
About three years ago, I was diagnosed with a pathology in the blood - macroglobulinemia. Within a year I took the drug as a leukeran, I was very pleased with the result.
Tatiana, 26 years old:
I have been ill for about 5 years with chronic lymphatic leukemia, the last course of Leyker therapy was a month ago. I had no adverse reactions and allergies, and the general condition and laboratory indicators are gradually returning to normal.
The cost of Leukeran in Moscow and St. Petersburg ranges from 3,199 and up to 3,122 rubles.
Analogues of Leykeran
The analogues of Leykeran include such preparations:
Leave from pharmacies
Leukeran can be purchased at the pharmacy only if you have a prescription.
Storage conditions and shelf life
Store the preparation at a temperature in the range of 2 to 8 degrees, in a place protected from direct sunlight.
Video about the drug Leukeran( Chlorambucil):