Neoplasms are considered a growth of cells, in which the processes of their development and maturation have been changed. With disrupted development and the rate of reproduction of cellular structures, but not disturbed by their maturation( only mature and intact cells are divided), benign tumors are formed. When their appearance is malignant, maturation and division are disturbed, immature cells begin to grow rapidly.
Classification and types of stomach tumors
Classification of tumors of the stomach divides them into benign and malignant species.
Benign neoplasms are divided into the following categories: non-epithelial( intra-wall) and epithelial( arise on the mucosa).
Epithelial neoplasms are represented by polyps that appear during regeneration processes in the mucous membrane of the organ, with inappropriate embryonic development. The polyp is formed in the region of the residues of heterotopic tissues remaining in the mucosa after its embryonic formation. They can be single, numerous. There may also be a polyposis. Often the disease runs without symptoms, but polyps can grow into malignant tumors.
Fibroids, lipomas, fibromiomas, neurilemomas, choristomas, chondromes, osteochondromas, lymphangiomas, endothelioma, hemangiomas, etc. are considered as non-epithelial in classification.
Malignant tumors develop from the mucous membrane of the organ and are represented by stomach cancer. The main causes of cancer is the peculiarity of the natural environment( ecology) and nutrition, high alcohol consumption, excess nitrites and nitrates.
Neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach
Neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach belong to heterogeneous formations. They are the source of neuroendocrine cells, dispersed throughout the body, capable of producing amines and peptides that cause hormonal syndromes. Usually their growth is slow, but they differ in malignant potential. There are cases of rapid growth and resistance to therapy.
Now the following types of neuroendocrine tumors are distinguished: vipoma, insulinoma, gliganoma, somatostatinoma, gastrinoma and carcinoid neoplasms. In clinical practice, carcinoid and gastrinoma can be inherited and be a component of endocrine neoplasm.
Such tumors may be functional( with specific symptoms) or non-functioning. The clinical manifestation of the disease is carcinoid syndrome, which is sometimes accompanied by the eponymous crisis. A crisis may appear due to stress, biopsy of a neoplasm or anesthesia.
Neuroendocrine tumors are associated with different clinical manifestations( enteropathy, nephropathy, cachexia).
Non-epithelial tumors of the stomach
A rare disease is non-epithelial stomach tumors, which may not be accompanied by symptoms even with their large parameters. Sometimes, with small tumors, severe symptoms may appear.
They can grow from vascular( hemangioma), connective( fibroma), smooth muscle( leiomyoma), fat( lipoma) tissues. There may be mixed neoplasms( neurofibromiomas, fibromiomas, etc.).
Diagnosis of neoplasm is performed with endoscopic or radiographic examination. Only with a ulceration of the membrane located above the neoplasm can a biopsy be administered.
Only surgical intervention is performed. If evidence of good quality is confirmed, the formation is excised or excised with the area of the gastric wall.
Tumor of the body of the stomach
Tumors of the body of the stomach are benign and malignant.
To benign neoplasms include polyps and polyposis. Polyps are represented by the formations on the stem, which originate from the mucous membrane and grow in the lumen of the stomach. Polyposis characterizes the presence of single or multiple polyps. The reason for the appearance of polyps is associated with a violation of tissue regeneration. Polyps can be a precancerous condition, especially in the case of an adenomatous polyp.
Symptoms of polyposis are characterized by dizziness, headaches, fatigue, weakness, decreased appetite. Diagnosis is associated with fibroadastroscopic examination.
If the polyp does not degenerate into a malignant tumor, then it can be removed by an endoscope. When it degenerates into a malignant neoplasm, surgery is recommended with removal of the organ.
Cancer is a malignant tumor, the cause of which is associated with heredity, the action of carcinogens( nitrosamines, preservatives, smoked, rough, spicy, overcooked or fatty foods).Preconceptional conditions( polyps, chronic atrophic gastritis, ulcer, pernicious anemia, immunodeficiency) are also important.
In the initial stages, the symptoms are almost not manifested. In the future, they can be associated with reduced ability to work, fatigue, fever, weakness, rapid weight loss and mental changes. At the same time, there may be a feeling of over-filling, discomfort in the stomach, vomiting or nausea.
For the diagnosis of cancer using instrumental methods( radiography, gastroscopy and biopsy).Sometimes MRI and computed tomography can be used. To exclude metastasis of the neoplasm in other organs, except for MTP, CT, ultrasound and radiography are used.
Antral tumor of the stomach
The tumor of the antral body of the stomach differs in infiltrative growth and spread. Such neoplasms lack clear boundaries, which can not be determined macroscopically. Often they cover the organ outlet, and they spread to the upper parts and to the 12-colon.
on the degeneration into a malignant tumor requires a surgical operation with the removal of part of the stomach.
Malignant tumors include cancer, the causes of which have been little studied. Presumably it can be an ulcer, chronic gastritis, polyps and hereditary factor.
Cancer of the stomach is determined by taking blood on oncomarkers. The cancer is located in the antrum and small curvature of the organ, metastasizes into the lungs, the liver and lymph nodes. The disease manifests fatigue, weakness, reduced appetite, fever.
Diagnosis is established by endoscopic examination and X-ray method. Surgical removal of the stomach is prescribed, sometimes - radiation or chemotherapy.
After resection, relapses may appear. According to clinical observations, antral tumors require total gastrectomy. This method is also applicable for stomach cancer.
Nutrition for stomach tumors
According to numerous studies, people who eat a lot of vegetables and fruits are less prone to the formation of stomach tumors. Do not consume foods that are high in calories. In addition to vegetables and fruits, nutrition with a stomach tumor includes eating cereals and cereals. Also, you should limit the consumption of red meat, alcohol, smoked and salted foods. To add flavor to the food, it is better to use seasonings and herbs. The patient needs to stop smoking, since smoking increases the risk of developing cancer.