The disease belongs to the category of malignant neoplasms. Carcinoma cells do not participate in the normal operation of the stomach. They are localized in the mucous membranes. Among malignant tumors of the stomach, carcinoma is the second most common.
Carcinoma is more common in men over 40 years of age. The causes of oncology are factors of the stomach, such as:
- any form of gastritis,
Symptoms of carcinoma of the stomach
Symptoms of carcinoma depends on:
- disease stage,
- size of the tumor,
- localization of the malignant tumor,
- presence of metastases.
At the initial stages of the disease is manifested as any other disease and does not stand out from the general series of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients at the beginning of the process are characterized by:
- complaints of weakness,
- rapid fatigue,
- aversion to food or significant impairment of appetite,
- weight loss,
- constantly present severity or hindrance in the stomach.
As the disease progresses, complaints can begin to flow from the patient:
- the appearance of pain localized in the epigastrium,
- frequent nausea and vomiting.
These symptoms of carcinoma of the stomach are called "small signs".But they may not appear until the disease reaches the later stages, which are characterized by abundant metastasis and destruction of the tumor. A patient who calls small signs and who has stage III or IV disease is practically inoperable.
Localization of the carcinoma
When the disease is localized in different parts of the stomach, the patient has various manifestations that point exactly to the area affected by the tumor.
- When the tumor is localized in the peritoneal region, the patient develops ascites - that is, free fluid in the abdominal region.
- The most common tumor is found in the antrum and pyloric section of the stomach. Localization in these areas prevents free emptying of the stomach. The patient, in this case, complains of lack of appetite, pain, belching with air, which smells of hydrogen sulfide. Vomit becomes a stool odor. The defeat of the gatekeeper and his gaping causes the patient a constant feeling of hunger, accompanied by pain and belching with air with the smell of stool.
Treatment of gastric carcinoma
When addressing the issue of treatment measures, an integrated approach is used. Selection of methods and methods of treatment is based on:
- stage and localization of the disease,
- presence of the metastasis process,
- as well as on the overall well-being of the patient.
The most common way of treating carcinoma is resection of the stomach. Depending on the severity of the lesion, both full and partial resection may be prescribed.
When a large number of metastases are found, resection becomes meaningless. But even at these stages, malignant neoplasm is treated. In this case, it is prescribed:
- symptomatic treatment.
Radiation therapy can also anesthetize the patient in case of metastasis of the brain and bone marrow.
Anesthesia is also medicated. For this purpose, both narcotic analgesics and opiates are prescribed.
In addition to anesthetics prescribe:
Eating is parenteral.
Gastric carcinoma - forecast
The prognosis of carcinoma of the stomach largely depends on the stage of the disease. In addition, aggravating factors are:
- degree of affection of lymphatic regional nodes,
- detection of distant metastases.
Resection gives 12% survival in a five-year period. With superficial carcinoma localization, the five-year survival rate in the postoperative period reaches 70%.
If the carcinoma occurred at the site of ulcer localization, then the prognosis in this case is 30 to 50% within a five-year period after resection.
A significant clinical improvement is observed with chemotherapy in patients with stage IV disease. Improvements range from 20 to 40% of patients. But the survival rate is reflected little.
Ring-cell carcinoma of the stomach
Very often, the ring-like form of cancer manifests as carcinoma metastasis. For this type of malignant neoplasm, germination through the thickness of the stomach wall is characteristic. This type of characteristic change is called endophytic.
People with untreated diseases of the digestive tract, as well as people with abnormal eating habits and seeking to eat salty, spicy and well-fried food fall into the risk group.
The transstellar cell form of the malignant neoplasm is characterized by rapid flow. This form gives a lot of metastases.
The prognosis for this form of cancer is slightly worse than in normal carcinoma. Survival after resection of the first two stages in a five-year period is 80-85%.Resection of the third stage gives 5-10% survival.