Most of the world's population is aware of the dangers of cancer. The cancer of the stomach occupies one of the first positions in prevalence, and people of fully able-bodied age are more often exposed to the disease.
Detection of the disease is not a verdict, modern medicine successfully treats cancerous diseases not only at the first stage of their development. Therefore, a patient with established stomach cancer of any kind should not panic, but it is necessary under the supervision of a doctor to undergo a course of therapy.
What causes pathology?
The development of a cancerous tumor in the stomach occurs under the influence of many provoking factors and therefore nobody is insured against this disease.
The probability of a malignant organ damage increases several times under the influence of several reasons, they are referred to as:
- Permanent malnutrition. Irritation of the mucous layer of the stomach occurs when consuming too much fatty, hot, salted food. Lead to certain violations and various fast foods, eating dry, monotonous dishes with the least amount of trace elements and vitamins.
- Negative influence of the Helicobacter pylori bacteria. This microorganism is the main cause of chronic gastritis, ulcerative lesions, which in turn are considered precancerous diseases.
- Polyps of the stomach.
- Effects of tobacco carcinogens, alcohol.
- Weighed down by heredity. Propensity to malignant formations is transmitted and inherited.
- Occupational hazards. Work on harmful chemical production leads to a disruption in the functioning of the stomach, carcinogenic substances aggressively affect the mucosa.
In men, stomach cancer occurs more often, which is associated with bad habits.
Symptoms of the disease
Malignant process in the stomach can not be established only by one feature. That is, there are no specific symptoms of this disease. In the early stages of stomach cancer attention can be drawn to the first dyspeptic symptoms, this is:
- Feeling of heaviness in the upper half of the stomach.
- Nausea, heartburn.
- Aversion to food and loss of appetite.
- Increased gas formation.
Usually, the growth of a cancerous tumor in the stomach is slow, so the clinic of the disease also grows gradually. Discomfort is replaced by aching, pulling pain, they can give in the lower back, the upper half of the chest.
Intoxication of the body leads to a decrease in working capacity, to the appearance of apathy and lethargy, it is possible to periodically raise the temperature. Germination of the tumor in the walls of the body and vessels, its expression cause bleeding.
Emerging blood can be detected in vomit or feces. About the admixture of blood is indicated by a dark, almost black feces.
Methods for treatment of stomach cancer
After the diagnosis is established, the doctor must choose a treatment method that will completely cure the disease, reduce the likelihood of relapse, reduce the risk of metastasis and greatly facilitate the patient's well-being.
Methods of therapy for cancer patients are selected based on the stage of pathology, the age of the patient, the location of the neoplasm, and secondary cancer sites are also taken into account.
Operation in cancerous tumors in the stomach is the most effective if performed in the early stages. The minimal tumor size can be removed by endoscopic intervention.
This type of operation is the least traumatic, but it can be used only if the doctor is sure that there are no cancer cells in the surrounding tissue.
The traditional operation involves removing not only the malignant neoplasm, but also a part of the adjacent tissues and the lymph nodes located next to the organ. The decision to remove the stomach or one of its parts is taken depending on the location of the cancer.
But even with a completely remote stomach, modern surgery can create conditions for digesting food. To do this, the esophagus connects with the intestines with the help of a segment of the large or small intestine, and the ducts of the pancreas and gall bladder are excreted into this artificial formation. That is, thus, the environment necessary for digesting incoming food is provided.
One hundred percent cure for cancer even after the most successful surgical intervention is not guaranteed even by the most highly qualified specialist. Atypical cells can be located in a number of located tissues, so after a while the growth of a new tumor is possible.
The probability of recurrence of the disease decreases many times, if after the operation, chemotherapy is performed.
Chemotherapy is a treatment method that uses special antineoplastic drugs to kill cancer cells. The goals of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer patients with stomach cancer are several, this is:
- Complete destruction of malignant growth. This is achieved only in the early stages, that is, when chemotherapy is scheduled on time.
- Slowing the formation of a cancerous tumor.
- Reduction of tumor size. To this end, chemotherapy is usually prescribed before a surgical procedure.
- Destruction of cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy in this case prevents the formation of secondary foci of cancer.
Antineoplastic agents may be administered with the help of droppers, in the form of injections or in tablets. In the latter case, the patient can continue treatment at home. Several chemotherapy regimens have been developed and used in the treatment of gastric cancer, usually similar courses of therapy involve the use of two or four drugs at once.
This allows you to achieve maximum destruction of cancer cells, but at the same time the entire human body suffers. The thing is that antitumor drugs are not distinguished by the selectivity of their actions, that is, they negatively affect not only the cancer cells, but also change the work of normal cells.
The result of this process is reflected by hair loss, severe nausea and vomiting, dizziness, weakness. After treatment, the structure and functioning of healthy cells is gradually restored.
In the first stages of stomach cancer, antitumor agents are used both before and after surgery. Possible repeated chemotherapy course.
Scheme of chemotherapy for stomach cancer Stage 4 with metastases
In the fourth stage of stomach cancer, surgical intervention is almost never prescribed. The main goal of treating patients with this diagnosis is to facilitate the progress of the disease and prolong life.
To cope with this is possible only with the help of chemotherapy regimens, sometimes radiotherapy is added to them. Chemotherapy is prescribed by long-term courses, use:
- Combination of Cisplatinum with Fluoropyrimidine and Fluorocyl.
- Anthracyclines( Epirubicin) with platinum preparations and with fluoropyrimidine.
- Combination of Irinotecal with Fluracil and Leucovorin.
The dosage of medicines and the total duration of their use are selected individually. Sometimes one course of treatment can go up to six months. With widespread stomach cancer, platinum-containing drugs and a remedy such as Irinotecan are often used.
In some clinics, patients are offered alternative therapies that involve the use of new chemotherapy drugs.
Radiation therapy is a treatment method that uses high-energy radiation to destroy cancer cells in the stomach.
Irradiation acts only on the place to which the rays are directed.
In gastric cancer, radiotherapy is prescribed if the neoplasm is located near the esophagus or directly during the operation.
Radiotherapy is performed in a hospital. The course of this method of treatment involves conducting irradiation sessions for several days with a break in two or three days and with the further continuation of treatment.
The irradiation session takes only a few minutes, but after it, there may be side effects in the form of sore throat, heartburn, nausea. To eliminate unpleasant symptoms, the doctor prescribes certain medications.
Radiation therapy for stomach cancer is rarely performed as the only treatment option, it is usually combined with chemotherapy.
Immunotherapy is one of the newest methods of treating malignant diseases. A technique is based on stimulating the immune system with the help of certain medications.
Strengthening the protective forces allows the body itself to cope with cancer cells, this technique has many advantages, they include a minimum number of side effects.
Immunotherapy for stomach cancer is divided into several areas:
- Introduction of the cancer vaccine , which increases the production of lymphocytes and immunoglobulin. Thus, immunity begins to actively work against cancer education.
- Treatment with monoclonal antibodies. The technique is based on the detection of antigen in cancer cells, to which antibodies are selected. The combination of the antigen with the antibody destroys the cancer cell.
- Introduction of lymphocytes previously taken from the patient. In special conditions, these lymphocytes are enhanced by anticancer activity.
Immunotherapy methods continue to be actively developed and there are already many examples of complete recovery of patients with cancer when they are used.
Symptomatic therapy is a treatment necessary to relieve the pain syndrome and other changes in the state of health and functioning of the stomach. Medications are also needed to eliminate the side effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, some patients require the use of sedatives and tranquilizers.
When pain occurs, patients with stomach cancer are prescribed pain medication. Begin to use non-narcotic analgesics at first, because if you use drugs at once, then at the last stages of the disease they will not have the desired effect.
Non-narcotic analgesics include:
- NSAIDs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This is Nimesulid, Ketonal, Naprosin, Voltaren.
- Analgin, Pentalgin, Sedalgin.
In addition to anesthetics, treatment can be performed with drugs that enhance the action of analgesics. These are antidepressants, antipsychotics, hormones.
In addition to the pain of the patient with cancer in the stomach, other symptoms are also worrisome, such as nausea, bloating, belching.
Dyspeptic disorders are related to the fact that digestion of food in the stomach in patients is disrupted, and the goal of symptomatic treatment is the maximum normalization of the body.
This is achieved by taking enzymes - Mezim, Degestal, Pancreatin. These pills promote digestion of food, and this reduces the severity in the stomach, relieves nausea.
If there is heartburn and eructation, Gastal, Rennie, Maalox will help. From a strong nausea and vomiting appoint Lorazepam, Diazepam, Domperidon. Patients with a malignant lesion of the stomach need vitamins and taking courses.
In the development of anemia, preparations containing iron are prescribed. Select a symptomatic therapy should the doctor, guided by the state of health of his patient.
Is it possible to cure 4 degree?
The fourth stage of stomach cancer is considered inoperable. The prognosis of the course of the disease is extremely unfavorable.
Such patients are rarely offered surgical intervention, and the treatment mainly consists of courses of chemotherapy and radiation exposure. At this stage of the cancer, in addition to the basic therapy, one can use folk methods, a combination of several treatments can prolong the life of a person for several years.
Cancer patients never need to give up. In modern medicine, new types of cancer treatment of any stage appear and some of them inspire hope that this disease will soon be completely defeated.
How to prevent oncology?
Fully protect yourself from the likelihood of developing cancer of the stomach will not be able to anyone. But it can be done so that the risk of this disease will be minimized. To do this, you need to maintain a healthy image of food, eat moderately and preferably always fresh and natural products.
Good state of immunity is provided by sports activities, positive attitude, prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases. If there are unclear pains and changes in well-being, you should always be examined.
Preventive examinations are recommended to specialists after 40 years. Cancer detection at the initial stages of its development will help to undergo a course of highly effective therapy.
Reviews about the treatment of
My stomach cancer was exposed to my father three years ago. He was 53 years old. They put the second and third stage, the operation and chemotherapy were performed. Now he periodically drinks prescribed medications, adheres to a diet, gave up alcohol and quit smoking. In principle, while everything is fine. No disease recurrence was detected. I hope that the disease receded.
The colleague was put on stomach cancer at 39 years old. She immediately began to look for a clinic abroad and decided to trust Israeli doctors. As a result, she was operated on in two weeks, was medicated and sent home. Now every six months she goes to the examination. The only thing is - for such treatment, a lot of money is needed and not all of them have.
Prevention of gastric cancer is the constant adherence to the principles of rational nutrition. It is necessary to give up smoking, drinking alcohol. Prevention of cancer is considered and living in ecologically safe areas.
With the development of precancerous diseases, they must necessarily be fully treated.
The goal of palliative care is to maximize the relief of stomach cancer in advanced cases.
The task of palliative care is psychological support of the patient and his immediate family.
Video about new approaches to the treatment of stomach cancer: