Disease of the intestinal mucosa, caused by inflammation and triggered by various causes, is commonly called colitis. Various factors contribute to the development of colon colitis, including:
- Infectious diseases caused by bacteria. Viruses, fungi, salmonella or dysentery amoeba also belong to the factors provoking the inflammatory process.
- Prolonged use of certain medicines, drugs with laxative effect.
- Incorrect food with a predominance of bakery products, flour, sweet, as well as spicy food and alcohol.
- Allergic reaction to food.
- Disorders of normal circulation of the mucous membrane.
- Excessive physical activity.
- Diseases of the gallbladder and pancreatitis.
- Presence of helminths and dysbiosis of microflora.
Colitis colitis develops in several stages in case of untimely elimination of causes and lack of proper treatment. The first, catarrhal stage of colitis is characterized by swelling and irritation of the mucosa. In the second stage, fibrinous, the mucosa of the colon is necrotic with the appearance of necrotic areas due to the damage to the blood vessels. In the final third stage of the disease ulcers of different size and depth appear on the irritated and dead cells of the mucosa.
Symptoms of colon colitis
The inflammatory process can take place in an acute form and later becomes chronic colitis. Symptoms of acute inflammation are:
- severe colic pain in the abdomen;
- nausea, general weakness;
- desires for defecation, often false very frequent throughout the day;
- bloating, flatulence.
When the disease changes from acute to chronic, the symptoms change. Their manifestations depend on the type of inflammation and its location. Common to all types of colitis of the colon are abdominal pains that are blunt, aching and diarrhea. The most common signs of chronic inflammation include:
- rumbling in the abdomen;
- bloated abdomen, accumulation of gases in the intestine;
- painful palpation;
- diarrhea with mucus, sometimes with spotting;
- watery stool from two to twenty times a day with bacterial infection;
- decrease and lack of appetite;
- general weakness, decreased performance;
- in some cases can be a sharp increase in body temperature.
Symptoms of colon colitis can be implicitly expressed, and sometimes the disease for a long time is asymptomatic. But if you ignore the first signs of the disease and do not go to the doctor, the consequences can be the most serious.
Treatment of colon colitis
Hospital care is needed for at least one of the following:
- persistent uninterrupted diarrhea;
- dehydration of the body;
- blood in the feces;
- severe abdominal pain, similar to an attack of appendicitis;
- high temperature.
Treatment of simple colitis begins with the elimination of the causes that caused it. Before the appointment of a course of therapy, conduct diagnostic studies that allow you to accurately determine the type of disease. Laboratory studies of feces can establish the presence or absence of infected bacteria, dysbacteriosis, to establish what are the problems of the large intestine. A general analysis of the blood signals the presence in the body of the focus of the inflammatory process.
It is possible to visually assess the condition of the mucous membrane of the colon with the help of sigmoidoscopy at a distance of up to 60 centimeters. According to the method of examination, the colonoscopy does not differ from the sigmoidoscopy, but allows for a deeper examination at a depth of one meter. In this case, taking pieces of mucous for carrying out a histological analysis. The most complete picture of the nature of damage to the mucous membrane allows us to give an x-ray examination of the walls of the large intestine. Palpation by the doctor of anus allows to exclude suspicions of paraproctitis and hemorrhoids. Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity is performed to clarify the diagnosis.
The doctor determines the treatment of colon colitis after collecting all the information, and analyzing it. Acute colitis of the colon requires immediate symptomatic therapy of the disorder, determined by the type of pathogen. Appointed drugs against nausea, eliminating diarrhea, as well as to restore the intestinal microflora. In the bacterial nature of inflammation of the mucosa prescribe antibacterial drugs, sulfonamides and sorbents.
The main directions in the treatment of colon colitis are:
- Symptomatic therapy with the use of antispasmodics, to eliminate pain syndrome.
- Normalization of bowel function, improvement of motility and recovery of peristalsis.
After eliminating the symptoms of acute disease through medication, the issue of nutrition comes first. In general, determining how to cure colon colitis, the underlying remedy is a diet that excludes the use of foods that irritate the inflamed mucosa and diet, including meals in divided batches 4-5 times a day.
Medication depends on how strongly the symptoms of the disease appear and what the disease itself is caused by. To relieve pain, spasmolytic Duspatalin is effective, which simultaneously has a positive effect on the processes of bowel regeneration. Trimedate or Resolor are the most common drugs for restoring the natural peristalsis of the large intestine and preventing constipation. If necessary, the doctor prescribes the administration of bismuth sulfate or calcium carbonate, which has an enveloping effect, antidiarrheal agents.
For frequently recurring exacerbations of inflammation, a course of treatment of colon colitis with antibiotics is carried out. Insufficient production of enzymes is stimulated by Pancreatin, Mezim, Creon. With ulcerative colitis of the intestine, anti-ulcer drugs, glucocorticosteroids are administered, blood transfusions are used. With a deep lesion of the mucosa, accompanied by extensive or deep ulcers, bleeding requires surgical intervention.
As an additional therapeutic effect, use the traditional medicine, physiotherapy, a complex of therapeutic exercise. There is a wide variety of folk remedies, medicinal herbs, with which you can not only remove the symptoms of the disease, but also be cured. These measures are effective not only against such a serious disease as inflammation of the large intestine, but also for prevention. It should be noted that if after recovery, a person returns to the old way of life that caused this disease, did not take measures to cure other chronic gastrointestinal diseases, then the disease becomes chronic. At the same time, there is a risk of developing pathologies that are dangerous to human life.