Ménière's disease: causes, symptoms, clinical picture, diagnosis, treatment methods

Under Meniere's disease, it is customary to understand the damage to the inner ear, which is accompanied by an increase in the amount of labyrinthine fluid and intra-labyrinth pressure. Due to these processes, a person has dizziness, deafness, problems with balance.

In addition, people often have vegetative disorders and tinnitus. Usually the disease is accompanied by a one-way process and only in 10-15% of cases it has a two-sided form.

Meniere's disease ICD-10

Meniere's disease is a noninflammatory disorder of the inner ear that causes recurrent attacks of dizziness, tinnitus and a growing hearing loss. According to the ICD-10 pathology is coded under the cipher H81.0 "Ménière's disease".

Because of the abnormal process, swelling develops, which leads to signs of impairment. Usually the disease is detected in 30-50 years, and it is more susceptible to women. This is due to the hormonal origin of the disease.

Symptoms of

This condition is usually characterized by the defeat of one ear, but in 10-15% of situations, pathology is bilateral. Violation is accompanied by severe dizziness. In addition, the disease provokes such manifestations:

  • weakness;
  • ringing and tinnitus;
  • hearing impairment;
  • excessive sweating;
  • drop in body temperature;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • shortness of breath;
  • vomiting;
  • increased heart rate;
  • movement coordination disorder;
  • nystagmus.

As dementia develops, deafness progresses. In this case, the symptoms of dizziness on the contrary become less pronounced .

Attacks

The attack can last from 3 minutes to 2-3 days. However, most often it is observed 2-8 hours. These manifestations can be caused by different factors. These include:

  • overwork;
  • stressful situations;
  • alcohol intoxication;
  • overeating;
  • performing the manipulation in the ears;
  • noise;
  • smoking;
  • increase in body temperature.

When an attack of the disease occurs, a stunning sensation may appear, resembling immersion in water. The patient can not stand or sit, because seizures often end in a fall. If a person has managed to lie down and close his eyes, there will come a relief.

As the disease progresses, these symptoms become more pronounced. In difficult situations, they can persist between seizures.

Reasons for

There are various theories that try to explain the occurrence of Ménière's disease. The following are classified as risk factors:

  • problems with water-salt metabolism;
  • endocrine pathology;
  • syphilis;
  • allergic diseases;
  • clogging of the aqueduct of the vestibule;
  • vascular disease;
  • viral infections;
  • problems in the endolymphatic bag and duct;
  • violation of the Basta valve structure;
  • decrease in airiness of the temporal bone.

Recently, a theory has gained popularity that explains the appearance of this pathology as a result of disruption of the nerves responsible for the innervation of the vessels of the inner ear.

How a human hearing aid looks like

Types of

There are several varieties of Meniere's disease, each of which has some features.

Neurological

This type of pathology is characterized by attacks of vestibular disorders and hearing impairments. It is the neurological variety of the disease that has the most favorable prognosis.

Neurotic

This type of disorder is characterized by hearing loss in the form of attacks or constant deafness on a particular side.

Hemorrhagic

In this type of disease, blood cells enter the endolymph. As a result, the fluid pressure suddenly increases, which leads to a complete loss of vestibular functions and the possibility of hearing. Usually the disease is one-sided, but sometimes the pathological process affects both ears.

Two-sided

When this form of Ménière disease occurs, the abnormal process affects both ears simultaneously.

Diagnostics

To diagnose this disorder, a number of diagnostic tests are needed. Usually, doctors prescribe such procedures:

  • otoscopy;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • audiometry;
  • blood test for hormone levels;
  • evaluation of the vestibular apparatus;
  • thyroid ultrasound;
  • bacteriological analyzes.

It is very important to distinguish this disease from otitis, acute labyrinthitis, otosclerosis. A similar clinical picture also has a tumor lesion of the eighth pair of cranial nerves.

Treatment of

Therapy of this pathology includes two components - relief of symptoms of pathology and planned treatment. Usually, all activities are carried out on an outpatient basis. Complex forms of pathology that require surgical intervention are treated in a hospital.

Medication

To eliminate symptoms of pathology, such drugs are used:

  1. Neuroleptic drugs - help to reduce the psycho-physiological component of the disease. With the help of such drugs it is possible to remove the feeling of fear, which often accompanies an attack, to cope with excitement and dizziness. This category includes tryptazine and other drugs.
  2. Medications to eliminate nausea and vomiting. Scopolamine is included in this group.
  3. Means for vasodilation. Good reviews have no-spa and papaverine.
  4. Drugs with antihistamine effect. Particularly often prescribe funds of the first generation - pipolfen, dimedrol.
  5. Diuretics - help to remove excess fluid and help regulate the lymphatic content.

To regulate sleep disturbances, the physician selects a hypnotic on an individual basis. To combat attacks of fear and increased nervous excitement, the use of sedatives and tranquilizers is indicated.

It is very important to take all medications under the supervision of a doctor. They have rather strong side effects and are capable of provoking the development of addiction.

Correctly prescribed therapy helps to significantly reduce the intensity of symptoms of pathology, prolong the periods of remission and ease the course of an attack. In addition, adequate treatment reduces the rate of progression of irreversible processes.

It is important to consider that the drugs do not allow you to completely get rid of Meniere's disease. If the medication fails to produce the desired results, surgical intervention is performed.

What can ease the symptoms or the course of the disease

To improve the condition of a person with such a diagnosis, it is very important to make adjustments to his diet. The foods used should contain many vitamins and minerals. It is not recommended to eat a lot of fatty foods. Also it is necessary to limit consumption of carbohydrates.

Between seizures, people should lead an active lifestyle in order not to provoke a disability. It is very important to do special exercises that allow you to train the vestibular apparatus and coordinate movements. People who have lost their hearing are shown to perform hearing aids.

If a person develops depression, apathy and other abnormal mental reactions, it is very important to contact a psychologist.

Relatives of the patient should be aware of the presence of this pathology and the rules of behavior with a person who has this diagnosis. Specialists should conduct special classes with close patients.

What to do if you have Ménière's disease look in our video:

Meniere's disease is considered a rather dangerous violation, which is accompanied by serious manifestations and worsens the quality of life. To improve the prognosis of the pathology and slow its development, you need to turn to a specialist in time and adhere to his recommendations.

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