Mental and physical performance, intellectual potential, stable psycho-emotional background of each person directly depends on the state of the vessels involved in nourishment and blood supply to the brain. Normally, all vessels have elasticity, uniformity of all tissues of their walls and a certain diameter of the lumen, all this provides unobstructed blood flow and supply of all parts of the brain with necessary microelements and oxygen for functioning.
Clinic of the disease
Under the influence of unfavorable factors, the narrowing of the cerebral vessels develops - a pathological condition leading to the appearance of characteristic symptoms, and in severe cases to acute circulatory disturbance.
The blood vessels consist of three layers:
- The inner layer is the thinnest, it is based on epithelial cells, providing smoothness and free sliding of blood along the bed.
- The median layer is represented by elastic cells and muscle fibers that resist the blood flow.
- The task of the outer layer of the connective tissue is to separate the vessel from the surrounding tissues.
Vessel contraction occurs due to the accumulation of cholesterol plaques on the inner layer, over time they expand, cover large areas and lead to disruption of blood circulation. In the place of formation of a cholesteric plaque, the elasticity of the vessel is disturbed, it becomes less mobile.
The elasticity of the inner layer of the vessel decreases, which predisposes to the appearance of cracks, over time, these elements accumulate blood elements, form a clot or a scientific thrombus. Large blood clots under the influence of blood flow can come off and completely clog the lumen of the vessel.
Narrowing of cerebral vessels in children
Narrowing of the lumen of blood supplying the brain of blood vessels in children is much less common.
predisposing to the development of this pathology birth trauma, suffered vasculitis, congenital maldevelopment of the circulatory system, kidney disease and cardiovascular system.
It is possible to suspect a child's disease because of complaints of frequent headaches, dizziness, nausea. Such symptoms require a complete examination, since the narrowing of the cerebral vessels in the child as well as in the adult can lead to a sharp disruption of the blood supply - strokes, hemorrhages.
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Patients with a diagnosis - the narrowing of the vessels of the brain every year is revealed more and more.
The main reasons for the appearance of this ailment is usually attributed:
- Atherosclerosis - the accumulation of cholesterol plaques on the walls of the vessel due to excessive accumulation of cholesterol in the blood.
To the development of this pathology results in the constant use of fatty foods, nicotine components, alcohol abuse, lack of vegetable fibers and seafood in the daily diet.
Atherosclerosis affects the largest vessels - the carotid and vertebral, involved in the main blood supply of the most important parts of the brain.
- Chronic arterial hypertension leads to vascular deformity and narrowing of their lumen.
In many cases, patients have a combined effect of these two causes, which further exacerbates the overall well-being and progression of the disease.
The following factors also lead to rapid progression of disturbances in normal vascular function:
- Poor environmental conditions and lack of fresh air.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Stressful situations.
- Constant mental overload.
Symptoms and signs of vasoconstriction
Narrowing of cerebral vessels can proceed according to two scenarios.
The first form of the disease is acute, that is, stroke of the brain, which without timely medical care can lead to the patient's death.
The appearance of an acute form leads to a chronic course of the disease, which has been developing for several years.
Symptoms of chronic form develop gradually, a person gets used to their appearance and course, adapts to the disease and does not pay due attention to treatment.
Initial decrease in vascular elasticity, appearance of cholesterol cells and minimal deterioration of blood flow.
This stage is characterized by symptoms such as:
- Periodic headaches.
- Irritability, frequent change of mood.
- Slight decrease in concentration and performance.
- Fast fatigue.
The second stage of
All signs of an ailment increase. Attaches a constant noise in the ears, interfering with normal sleep.
Characteristic memory impairment, sharp decrease in concentration of attention, long migraines, possible the emergence of short-term fainting. Accompanying motor disorders - the gait becomes shuffling, there are false urge to urinate.
Visual function deteriorates, sensitivity disorders in the extremities are recorded.
The third stage of
It is characterized by the appearance of distinct violations in the coordination of movements. A person has to think about each of his actions in order not to lose balance and perform movements in the required volume.
There are signs of dementia, the changes from the pelvic organs continue to increase - possibly uncontrolled acts of defecation and urination.
At the third stage of the disease a person completely loses his ability to work, does not control his actions and needs constant help from relatives. Often, a violation of blood circulation leads to complete immobility.
Diagnosis of the disease involves several complementary forms of examination.
- The diagnosis of the neurologist begins with the examination of the patient. The doctor pays attention to the presence of neurologic symptoms, checks the reflexes, assesses the degree of mental activity.
In the last stages it is necessary to organize a conversation with the patient's relatives, to reveal the behavior of the patient in a home environment.
- Instrumental examinations include ECG, computed tomography. An important stage is the conduct of dopplerography, in the course of which the speed of blood flow and the diameter of the vessels are ascertained.
Computer angiography allows you to get the most accurate picture of the state of blood vessels, the presence of thrombi, aneurysm, atherosclerotic plaques.
How the cerebral vessels look when performing an MRI procedure:
Based on the survey data and in the presence of other pathologies, the neurologist may prescribe other diagnostic procedures.
Treatment of the narrowing of the cerebral vessels depends on the form of the disease. In case of acute impairment of blood circulation, assistance should be provided immediately with medicinal preparations aimed at eliminating all the changes that have arisen.
The most dangerous is a sharp narrowing of the vessels of the brain, which leads to irreversible consequences.
When identifying the disease in a chronic stage, therapy and selection of medications for the patient should ideally be handled by specialists from several fields - cardiologists, angioneurologists, therapists.
Treatment of ailment depends on the patient's condition and on the findings of the diagnosis, and basically consists of several stages.
Conservative treatment - the reception of pharmaceuticals of different groups. Some of the medicines are prescribed for life-long use.
Drugs for the treatment of vasoconstriction
Depending on the condition of the vessels, the doctor prescribes medicines of the following groups:
- Statins. They include Mevakos, Mefakor.
- Fibrates - Atromidine, Clobifrat, Zocor.
- Iodine therapy.
- Vitamin and mineral complexes.
- To increase the lumen of the vessels, papaverine and euphyllin.
The aim of the operations is to restore normal blood flow, conduct shunting or endarterectomy. When shunting, a special stent is inserted into the vessel, providing a normal framework to the altered walls of the vessel.
Endarterectomy - removal of atherosclerotic plaques under local anesthesia. The decision on surgical intervention is taken in the absence of the effect of medications and with the likely development of acute impairment as a result of blockage of the lumen of the arteries with a thrombus or a large atherosclerotic plaque.
The diet - selecting the right diet is an important step in further preventing the accumulation and development of atherosclerotic plaques.
Minimize the use of animal fats, caffeine, salt, smoked products. The most useful products for the walls of vessels are seafood, vegetables, fruits, greens.
Compliance with the principles of healthy lifestyle - rejection of nicotine, daily walks in the fresh air. Recommended physical activity, swimming, skiing, cycling, regular walking tours in ecologically clean areas.
is shown performing special gymnastic exercises , aimed at improving blood circulation in the brain. These are different head inclinations, struts on the shoulder blades, elbows, body twists, yoga exercises are useful.
Before deciding to do gymnastic exercises, it is necessary to wait for the results of the diagnosis - the presence of aneurysms and thrombi are contraindications to the performance of some exercise complexes.
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Folk methods of vascular cleaning also provide invaluable help in improving overall health. It is only necessary to remember that their use should be practiced together with the use of prescribed medications.
The most effective and affordable folk method for removing plaques from the walls of blood vessels is garlic. Two hundred grams of peeled garlic cloves are ground, poured in two hundred milliliters of alcohol and infused for fourteen days in a dark place. Reception of the prepared preparation begins with one drop, diluted in about a quarter of a glass of milk.
Drug is drunk thirty minutes before breakfast, before dinner and dinner, the drops are increased each time by one. The next day, the reception starts with four drops, then from 7 and so on until it reaches 25 drops, then the use of garlic tincture continues to decrease.
Consequences and prognosis
The prognosis of the disease is favorable when it is detected at an early stage and with appropriate treatment. Complete recovery and the maintenance of familiar life depends not only on drugs, but also on lifestyle changes.
The patient must constantly monitor his diet, lead a physically active life, use regular gymnastic exercises, exclude the influence of stress.
All this will avoid disability and help lead a normal, unlimited life. Without appropriate therapy, the prognosis is extremely unfavorable: loss of ability to work, senile dementia, complete immobility, strokes, all this is far from a complete list of complications of cerebral vessels.
Prevention of the disease
Brain contraction can develop to mature age in almost any person, the disease can be avoided if one follows throughout life the following recommendations:
- Healthy Eating - fatty foods, smoked products, baked goods, carbonated drinks, excess salt should be a rare exceptionof the rules. Preference should be given to seafood, boiled and stewed dishes, compotes, fruit drinks, broths of wild rose.
- Constant physical activity - hypodynamia predisposes to rapid deposition of plaques.
- Smoking and alcohol are the best allies in reducing the elasticity of blood vessels, their exclusion significantly prolongs life and improves well-being.
- It is necessary to correctly learn how to react to stressful situations, not allowing their negative impact on psycho-emotional status.
Narrowing of the cerebral vessels, revealed in the early stages, is not a serious disease. Timely and constant therapy, following the recommendations of a doctor will avoid complications. The patient only needs constant adherence to the entire therapy regimen.
Preventive cleaning of cerebral vessels at home: