Gastric cancer is a malignant tumor that forms in the mucosa. There are different types of disease, characterized by a macroscopic form, the site of localization, the histological variety of the tumor and the nature of growth.
Based on the microscopic form, diffuse, polypous, infiltrative-ulcerative, ulcerated and plaque-like stomach cancer is secreted. According to the results of many surveys, the most common form of the disease is ulcerative.
As a rule, the infiltrative form of a malignant tumor of the stomach is localized in its lower region by a small curvature. Cancer has an external resemblance to a deepened chronic ulcer, characterized by a tuberous bottom not more than 6 cm deep. Near the edges of the tumor, the mucosal shade is pale gray with bruises, but sometimes it may be yellowish-red. Painful sensations are similar to ulcers.
Basically, such a tumor is formed with an unbranched and chronic ulcer, diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. Most patients with precancerous disease had atrophic gastritis.
Boundaries of the tumor are indistinct, it is determined by invasive growth in the tissue of the organ. Individual cells of the tumor are weakly bound together and scattered in the thickness of the stomach tissues, that is, the disease affects it completely. Cancer cells expand over the submucosal layer, where there is a large number of lymphatic vessels and gives metastases. Gradually, the walls of the body thicken, the lumen narrows and the folds of the mucosa smooth out. In case of complications, peristalsis is broken and the stomach loses its elasticity.
Signs of the appearance of a malignant tumor from a peptic ulcer
The time of the transformation of an ulcer into a tumor formation has not been determined, therefore such a process can occur in any period of anamnesis.
The patient has a decrease in body weight, the presence of hidden blood in the stool, a decrease in the period of remission, a decrease in acidity, signs of weakness and anemia, and an appetite decreases until eating.
With respect to diet, medication, there may be a decrease in the symptoms of the infiltrative disease, but not cure for it.
At the first stage of the examination, radiography is performed, sometimes together with the insertion of a probe. This determines the position and relief of the organ. After that, gastroscopy with biopsy is assigned to determine the early stage of the disease.
Computed tomography reveals secondary formations in some organs, defines contours, localization and tumor parameters.
In addition, laboratory examinations with the definition of oncomarkers are prescribed. Evidence of the emergence of infiltrative cancer will be their presence, an increase in the index of ESR, lymphocytes, etc.
Treatment of infiltrative stomach cancer
All surgical procedures are used to treat all infiltrative gastric cancer. The type of operation is determined in accordance with the nature of the growth of the tumor, which is palliative or radical. With an impossible operation, chemotherapy is prescribed to reduce its size and then resect it.
Radiation irradiation( radiotherapy) is rarely used as a separate method for the treatment of infiltrative disease. It is often combined with chemotherapy or surgery.
The following types of chemotherapy are distinguished:
- adjuvant( applied after operations);
- nonadjuvant( used before surgery, reduces tumor parameters and simplifies surgical intervention);
- palliative( used for an impossible operation to reduce the clinical course of the disease).
Basically, infiltrative cancer is eliminated by non-adjuvant chemotherapy with further operation, prolongation of remission and improvement of the patient's condition.
In the infiltrative form of stomach cancer, preventive measures are of particular importance. Non-admission of atrophic gastritis, stomach ulcers, timely therapy can prevent the oncological process. When an ulcer or erosion of the stomach is detected, the patient is required to have a check at a periodicity of 6 months.