Gastric cancer is an oncological deadly disease, which, in terms of frequency and mortality, comes first and has several stages of development. In some cases, the cancer develops in the unchanged mucous membrane of the affected organ. Its development is promoted by diseases that are considered precancerous: ulcers, polyposis, chronic gastritis and pernicious anemia.
In medicine, a zero degree and four major stages of stomach cancer are diagnosed.
Zero degree of cancer
Zero degree or intraepithelial carcinoma is the origin of a malignant tumor. Her cells are still on the surface layer of the stomach wall. Over time, cancer cells spread completely to the entire mucosa and to healthy tissue, and the zero stage of cancer will go to the first.
To detect cancer at the zero stage is difficult, because it does not manifest itself, leaking asymptomatically. But if you quickly diagnose an initial degree, then more than 90% of the sick people have every chance of recovery and a happy life. Further, if the origin of the disease was not diagnosed, the cells begin to progress, and the zero stage passes to the first.
First stage of
At the first stage of cancer, a small tumor is already formed, but it did not spread beyond the mucous membrane and did not give metastasis. Its dimensions are still very small and do not exert pressure on neighboring organs.
The first stage is divided into two degrees: "A" and "B".
With grade "A", malignant cells spread throughout the mucous wall of the stomach.
With degree "B" - also on the lymph nodes or on muscle tissue.
At the first stage, because of a small number of malignant cells, the body is still able to cope with the products of their vital functions, the patient does not experience attacks of toxicosis. As well as zero, the first degree is difficult to diagnose, because the disease develops without any symptoms.
Treatment at the 1st degree
At the 1st stage of the patient, the stomach is operated and resected, in which the task is set: the radical elimination of tumor tissue and the elimination of metastases. Depending on the circumference of the disease, resection is carried out by two thirds, but more than 50% of operations use a subtotal resection, in which the entire stomach is cut with a wide lymphatic net. In some cases, even total resection is not enough, so the patient is prescribed additional chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
2nd stage of
2-nd is characterized by a tumor that germinates the muscular membrane of the stomach, without germination in the serous cover, and in the nearest regional lymph nodes may appear metastases. Functionality of the stomach at the 2 nd degree is preserved. As in the 1st stage, the 2nd has two degrees: "2A" and "2B"
At "2A" the tumor is present in the inner layer of the stomach, and the cells - in the lymph nodes( up to six);or a tumor is present in the muscular layer of the affected organ, the cells have spread to the nearest lymph nodes( no more than 2);or the tumor spread all over the organ wall and into the lymph nodes.
With a grade of "2B", the tumor is present in the inner layer of the stomach, spreading further and covering more than 7 lymph nodes;or is in the muscular layer of the organ and in 3 or 6 lymph nodes;or struck the outer layer and 1-2 lymph nodes;or went beyond it, the lymph nodes are intact.
To detect the disease at the 2 nd stage it is possible in 6% of cases. The chances of a complete cure are in half of the operated, and the second - a chance to live up to 5 years. From the many years of practice of doctors who operated oncological patients, there are observations that if a patient has lived 5 years after the treatment of stage 2 cancer, then he is considered fully cured.
3rd stage of
Stage 3 is characterized by a large tumor that has gone beyond the walls of the stomach and has been soldered or ingrown into other neighboring organs, severely limiting the functionality of the stomach. In regional lymph nodes there is also a tumor with metastases.
The third degree is divided into three stages: "3A", "3B", "3C".
"3A" is characterized by a tumor that has spread in the muscular layer of the stomach, in 7 or more lymph nodes;or grew into all layers of the body, the cells spread to 1-2 lymph nodes.
"3B" is characterized by a tumor that has sprouted the outer wall of the stomach and spread to more than seven nodes;or a tumor penetrated into the stomach tissue and into the lymph nodes.
"3C" is characterized by a tumor that is outside the external walls of the stomach and is present in 3-6 lymph nodes.
To cure cancer of the third degree is rather difficult, and the survival rate of cancer patients after the course of treatment is up to 40%.
The fourth degree of stomach cancer is the last one, characterized not by the size of the tumor, but by the spread of metastases to neighboring vital organs such as the liver, lungs, pancreas, bones and even the brain.
This stage is poorly treatable because there is already an irreversible process that can not be controlled, in which cancer cells spread to organs far from the stomach and almost the entire lymph system is affected.
Diagnose the fourth stage in the presence of tumors in other organs;with fast-growing cancers;in the presence of cancer in bone tissues;in fatal cancerous tumors.
Treatment of the fourth stage of cancer involves an impact on the symptoms, namely:
- restriction of tumor spread,
- decrease in growth rate,
- complete stop of the tumor process,
- preservation of the viability of the affected organs.
Treatment: surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, hormone and immunotherapy. Depending on the type of cancer, these methods are used together or separately.
In fact, the fourth degree of cancer is considered a sentence. The patient's survival rate is no more than 15%.
How to determine the presence of gastric cancer by the symptoms of
In the early stages of the appearance of cancer, the symptomatology is usually absent or nonspecific.
The first symptoms appear with a significant tumor lesion and are expressed by the following symptoms: weakness, fatigue, inability to concentrate, poor appetite, a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen during before and after eating, pallor of the skin, nausea and unreasonable weight loss. On these grounds, it is difficult to suspect cancer, and cancer patients often refer to fatigue, stress, lack of sleep or avitaminosis.
To avoid progressing cancer, it is worth to be examined by a doctor, with any listed symptom.