Lishay, whether it's asbestos, ringworm, pink, warty or other - is always a big and unpleasant problem. Lisha scrofula( lichenoid skin tuberculosis) occurs in people of any age, but often develops in children with weakened immune system functioning or anemia. There is a disease against the background of the already existing tuberculous process in the lungs, joints and bone tissue, lymph nodes in the active stage. The disease spreads through the body with blood or lymph flow.
The incidence of cases of tuberculosis of the skin is gradually decreasing, as people's housing, material and sanitary conditions are improving. Rarely there are special forms of scrofulous and tuberculous lupus, infrequently fix the condensed erythema of Bazin, which cause deformities on the skin. The percentage of sick children in the total number also decreased. But there are cases of hidden tuberculosis processes that manifest themselves with sudden changes in the immune system.
Features of the disease
Cutaneous tuberculosis belongs to the category of chronic diseases. Its occurrence is directly related to hypersensitivity and excessive immune response of body tissues to penetration of the pathogen. In this role serves as a stick of Koch, or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis of skin in men and women has no special differences, but in children it is distinguished by the inadequacy of immune reserves, increased activity, propensity to reciprocal reactions of the whole organism. This causes the appearance of forms with a pronounced exudative nature of inflammation. So the most severe, disseminated manifestations of tuberculosis on the skin are observed in children of the first years of life. At the age of 3 years and at schoolboys localized forms with more favorable current more often reveal.
Depending on the immune cellular reactions and the degree of their severity, clinical forms of the disease are distinguished. This is determined by the cellular composition of granulomas and the degree of sensitivity of the organism to tuberculin.
Depending on the pathway of infection, the forms of skin tuberculosis can be:
Forms are divided into:
- Localized ( primary, colliquative, lupoid( lupus), warty and ulcerative cutaneous tuberculosis).
- Dissipated ( disseminated skin tuberculosis - papulonecrotic, lichenoid and inductive forms).
People with an asthenic physique have a constitutional predisposition to this disease. Such a process on the skin can develop with the active treatment of tuberculous lupus, by spreading the products of the disintegration of mycobacteria. Tuberculosis of the skin is a superinfection that occurs during the spread of the disease from the main focus.
An infectious agent is an aerobic( tuberculous bacillus of the human type, rarely bovine or avian), which needs oxygen for development. It resists acid and alcohol, can withstand high and low temperatures. The microbe is killed by boiling for several minutes and exposed to sunlight from 1 hour.
- The causative agent comes from the external environment. More common in children and adolescents with a weakened body and a violation of the protective properties of the skin. This is the appearance of primary cutaneous tuberculosis.
- Active mycobacteria are transferred from the source to other tissues and organs.
- Spread of the disease. Affected areas in relative proximity to the affected organs.
Symptoms and signs of lichen scrofulous are described below.
On the skin appear single or grouped small, painless nodules of a grayish-reddish color, or a hint of normal skin. Nodules are also called granulomas, and they are the basis of the pathological process with this type of skin tuberculosis. Nodules can be flat and conical in shape. Nodules can have small scales or horny spines, which can resemble seborrheic eczema.
Inside the nodules are lymphocytes and fibroblasts, as well as epithelioid cells. Symmetrical location of the rash is noted on the buttocks, the lateral surface of the body, the face, sometimes on the mucous lips. Eruptions can suddenly disappear, and then reappear. Patients usually do not notice any sensations. Complete cure for tuberculosis does not leave a chance of relapses on the skin. Minor pigmentation or small scars can remain in place of the papules.
Diagnosis of lichen scrofulous is described below.
There is no problem with the diagnosis of lichen tuberculosis, it is detected with a positive tuberculin reaction.
- It should only distinguish rashes from syphilitic lichen, where papules have different stages of development. Serological reactions serve to confirm syphilis.
- To distinguish scrofula from a pointed form of red flat lichen it is possible by the characteristic color of papules and itching rash.
To identify the causative agent of tuberculous skin lesions, it is possible:
- with tuberculin tests( Mantoux or Pirke);
- sowing of mycobacteria on nutrient media;
- by determining the tuberculoid structure of the infiltrate in the foci by the method of histological examination.
On the procedures and preparations against hair loss scrofulous read below.
Treatment depriving scrofulous
Treatment of any of the forms of tuberculosis is similar to each other and is aimed at activating immune reserves, reducing the sensitivity of some reactions and relieving inflammation in the tissues of the skin.
Therapy uses active antituberculosis antibiotics - rifamycin, streptomycin, rifampicin( rifadin).Adults and children of the dose and the number of receptions are calculated individually, taking into account the weight and condition of the patient. In the treatment of children, pantomycin is popular.
- With prolonged use of one drug, bacteria become resistant to it, so you need to change the medicine. At the second stage, use tubazid, ftivazid, metazid.
- Patients recommend a salt-free diet with high protein content. This reduces the inflammatory process and prevents allergic complications.
- Treatment of skin tuberculosis will be effective with the use of vitamins, rutin, calcium pantothenate. Ointments can be used externally.
- Heliotherapy and UFO showed good results.
- Recommend patients a spa treatment, especially with remission.
Prevention of the disease
The number of people with tuberculosis directly depends on the state of the environment and the impact of social factors. Harmful effects on the body as a whole weakens its protective reaction and reduces the productivity of the immune system. This leads to the development of the pathological process or its deterioration.
In this process, it is important to properly organize the learning process and rest, as well as meals for children and schoolchildren. At the level of the country, health activities are held. Preventive examinations and inoculations, fluorography and dispensary observation-all this is necessary to prevent the disease.
As a complication in lichenoid skin tuberculosis, a flaccid ulcer, a cold abscess or fistula may develop.
Cure and recovery is possible when you visit the hospital with the first symptoms, and improve the overall condition of the body.